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Full text of "Early renaissance architecture in England; a historical & descriptive account of the Tudor, Elizabethan & Jacobean periods, 1500-1625, for the use of students and others"

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A fine Series of Illustrations of the Country Mansions and 
Ancestral Halls of England. 

Architecture of the 
Renaissance in England. 


The Illustrations comprise 145 Folio Plates, 118 being repro- 
duced from Photographs taken expressly for the work, and 
180 Blocks in the Text. 

2 vols., large folio, in cloth portfolios ... £7 7s. Net. 
or half morocco, gilt ... £8 8s. Net. 

Plate I. 







i^oo — 1625 









Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive 

in 2007 witii funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 


Urtwn PtenoJnf 


It should, perhaps, be observ^ed that although this book is 
entitled Early Renaissance Architecture in England, it deals with 
much the same period as that covered by my former work 
The Architecture of the Renaissance in England, but with the 
addition of the first half of the sixteenth centur}'. The two 
books, however, have nothing in common beyond the fact that 
they both illustrate the work of a particular period. The 
former book exhibits a series of examples, to a large scale, of 
Elizabethan and Jacobean buildings, with a brief account of 
each : whereas this one takes the form of a hand-book in 
which the endeavour is made to trace in a systematic manner 
the development of style from the close of the Gothic period 
down to the advent of Inigo Jones. 

It is not the inclusion of the first half of the sixteenth 
century which alone has led to the adoption of the title Early 
Renaissance : the limitation of period which these words indicate 
appeared particular!}- necessary in consequence of the recent 
publication of two other books, one being the important work 
of Mr. Belcher and Mr. Macartney, illustrating buildings of 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, under the title of 
Later Renaissance Architecture in England ; and the other being 
Mr. Reginald Blomfield's scholarly book, .1 History of Renais- 
sance Architecture in England, which, although it starts with 
the beginning of the sixteenth century, does not dwell at any 
length upon the earlier work, but is chiefly devoted to an 
exhaustive survey of that of the seventeenth and eighteenth 

The value of a work on Architecture is greatly enhanced by 


illustrations, and I am much indebted to the numerous gentle- 
men who, with great courtesy, have placed the fruits of their 
pencil, brush, or camera at my disposal : their names are given 
in the Lists of Plates and Illustrations. More particularh- I 
desire to acknowledge the kindness of the Committee of that 
very useful publication The Architectural Association Sketch Book, 
in giving permission for some of their plates to be reproduced ; 
and among other contributors I have especially to thank 
Colonel Gale, Mr. W. Haywood, and Mr. Harold Brakspear; 
while to Mr. Ryland Adkms I am indebted for several valuable 
suggestions in connection with the text of the Introductory 
chapter. Mr. Bradley Batsford has rendered ungrudging assist- 
ance at every stage of the undertaking, which has particularly 
benefited from his broad and liberal views in regard to the 
illustrations. My thanks are also due to those ladies and 
gentlemen who allowed me to examine, and sometimes to 
measure and photograph their houses ; and I am indebted to 
Mr. Chart, the Clerk of Works at Hampton Court Palace, 
for much useful information imparted during my investigations 

Each illustration is utilized to explain some point in the 
text, but in many cases the reference is purposely made short, 
the illustration being left to tell its own story. 



August , 1901. 





FROM ABOUT I45O TO 1635 ...... 4I 

IV.— EXTERIOR FEATURES— The Lay-out of Houses, 

Lodges and Gateways, Doorways and Porches . 73 

v.— EXTERIOR FEATURES— General Aspect, External 

Appearance, Windows of various kinds ... 94 

VI. -EXTERIOR FEATURES— Gables, Finials, Parapets, 

Chimneys, Rain-water Heads, Gardens . . .116 

VII.-INTERI0RF1:ATURES— Royal Progresses, The Manner 

OF Decorating Rooms, Wood-Panelling . . . 138 

VIII.— INTERIOR FEATURES— Treatment of the Hall, 
Open Roofs, The Smaller Rooms, Doors and Door 
Furniture, Chimney - piixes. Ceilings, Pendants, 
Friezes .......... 159 

IX.— INTERIOR FEATURi:S— Staircases, The Great Cham- 
ber. The Long Gallery, Glazing, &c. . . . 1S4 

X.— MISCELLANJCOUS WORK— Strect Houses, Market 
Houses, Almhoi ses. Town Halls, Village Crosses, 
Schools, Churches and their 1*~ittings, &c. . . 200 


Drawings .......... 226 


List of Works on Ivakly Ri;naissan( i: ,\R(Hrn;< turi . . . 267 

Index 271 


Note. — The letters " A.A.S.B," denote that the subject is reproduced from 
The Architectural Association Sketch Book, with authority of the Draughtsman 
and by permission of the Committee. 


I. — Henry VII. 's Chapel, Wkstminstkk Abbkv, Intekiok 

View ......... Frontispiece. 

S. B. BolaP, London, photo. 

II. — Henry VII. 's in Westminster .Abhey . . . pack 

H. O. Cresswell, del. 14 

III. — Details from the To.mb of Henry, Lord Makney, 

Layer Marney Chirch . . J. Shewell Corder, del. iS 

/ Fan Vaulting, Chaimcl oe the Redmount, King's Lynn . \ 

,, I \V. Cialsworthv Davie, photo. 

IV. ■< ■" ly 

j V^AiLTiNG OF Porch, Cowdray Hoisf, Sisse.x . . . I 

\ J. A. (i., photo. ) 

V. — The Cofntess of Sai.isiury's Chantry, Chkistchfrch ; 

View from Choir ........ 20 

VI. — The Cofntess of Salisbfry's Chantry, Christc hfrch ; 

Detail of Niches on Xorih Sidi; ..... 22 

j Part of Screicn, St. Cross, Winchestfr . . . | 

VII. -j VV. Galsworthy Davie, photo, r 2f) 

I Paflict Tomb, Basinc; Chi r( h . . J. A. (i., photo. I 
VIII. — Screen in ihi; Chai-fl, King's C<)Llf(;i:, Cambriix.i; . 2S 
( Tile Paving 1 rom La( oc k Abbkv .... 

Harold Biakspcar. del. , 
IX. 1 L jN 

Sin(;le 1 i.m;s i rom ihe sami; 1'a\i;mint 

W. 1 Ia\ wood, di 1. .' 
X. — Chest from Si. Mary ()\erie, Softhwark 

Victor T. Jones, del. [.\..\.S.B. ^o 

XL- COMI'ION WiNYAlEs; CiNIRAL \'|FW ..... 47 

XIL — CoMBTON \\lNYATi:s; Tui: 1^NTRAN( F PoRCH 

C. 1:. MalloNss. del. 4.H 






XIII. (double) — Details from Layer Marney Tower 

Arnold B. Mitchell, del 
XIV. — The Entrance Gateway, Hengrave Hall . 

J. Palmer Clarke, Bury St. Edmund's, photo 
XV. — The Entrance Porch, Moreton Old Hall . 

Maxwell Ayrton, del 
XVI. — A Gable from the Front, Moreton Old Hall. 

Maxwell Ayrton, del 
XVII. — South Side of Courtyard, Kirhy Hall 

M. Starmer Hack, del 
-John Thorpe's Ground Plan for Kirby Hall . 

From the Soane Museum Collection 
(double) — Details of Porch in Court, Kirby 
Hall .... Arthur G. Leighton, del 

The Entrance Porch, Montacute House 

From a water-colour by W. Haywood 
XXI. — The Entrance Front and Gate-house, Doddington 
Hall. By permission from Rev. R. E. G. Cole's 
History of Doddington ...... 

XXII. — The Gatehouse at Stanway 

XXIII. — The Gatehouse at W'estwood .... 
I Doorway at Chipchase Castle .... 

J. P. Gibson, Hexham, photo 
Porch of the Manor House, Upper Slaughter 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo 
The Grand Staircase, Wardour Castle 

G. W. Wilson, Aberdeen, photo 
Doorway in Court, Hatfield House . 

Col. Gale, photo 
Arcaded Porch at Cranborne Manor House 
Wollaton Hall; General View .... 
BuRGHLEY House; General View .... 

G. W. Wilson, Aberdeen, photo 

XXIX. ' P-'^'^"^' O^^ H-^^'-' Rutland ) j ^ ^^ ^j^^^^ 

I The Manor House, Glinton > 
XXX. — Mount Grace Priory. Yorkshire . 
XXXI. — View of Front, Speke Hall . 
XXXII. — Part of the Front, Barrington Court 

Kotaro Sakurai, del. FA.A.S.B. 
j AsTLEY Hall ...... 

XXXIII.- Bedford Lemere, London, photo 

I Kirby Hall; The Bay Windows . Col. Gale, photo 






































-Gables .\t Lilford H.\ll . . . . . .112 

HoLMSHURST, BuRWASH [ W. Galsworthv Davie, 

Tudor House, Broadway ) photo. 118 

Chimnev-stack and Window from Lacock Abbey 

Harold Brakspear, del. 128 

-Blickling Hall ; Part of Entrance Front . 130 

Steps to Terrace, Haddon Hall . . . .\ 

Terrace Wall, Claverton House . . . . '- i^j 

J. L. Robinson, photo. J 

Gateway, Highlow Hall, near] 

Hathersage - J. A. G., photo. 136 

Terrace Steps, Eyam Hall j 

Side of Bay in the Dining Room, 

Haddon Hall t . ^ 

„ T^ u ■ J- ^- G-, photo. 153 

Panelling in the Dining Room, i 

Haddon Hall / 

Woodwork in Chapel, Haddon Hall] 
Bay Window in the Drawing - J. A. G., photo. 154 

Room, Haddon Hall . . . I 
-An Interior i-kom Carbrook Hall, near 

Sheffield ^57 

-Side of Room at Bknthall Hali 

B. J. Fletcher, del. 156 
-Screen in the Hall, Wadham College, Oxford . 159 
-Screen in the Hall, Trinity Collegi:, Cam- 
bridge .....-•••• 'f'" 
-Screen in thi: Hall, Wooi.las Hall 

Harold Baker, Biriiiinghain, photo. 160 
-Thi-; Gkeat Chambicu, South Wraxai.i. Manok Horsi; 

Ernest W. Ginison. del. 162 
-FiREi'i.ACi- and in iHi- Mavor's Room. 

Old Town Hall, Li:ici;s tkk ifi-2 

-Side of a Room, mi; " Ri;iNni;i;u " Inn. Baniury . 

John Stewart, del. 162 
-DFrA.iLs 01 Pani;<. 1 kom Si/i;r<,h Hall 

1". Dare Claphain. del. 163 
Inti;riok Pok( h. Bkoughion Casii.i-; .... i()3 
-Till-; Pri;si;nci; Chambi;k Ar Hakdwkk Hall . 

.■\. Se.inian, Chesterfield, jihoto. i()4 

DooiavAV in A Horsi; at P>kisi()I •f>4 

A Doorway i kom Ei.\ ins II am 

v. B. Turner, l"!aiiil)orouKli. photo. 165 



I Doorway, Gayton Manor House . . J. A. G., del. | 

LV. -j Doorway. St. Pktkr's Hospital, Bristol . . . i66 

( T. Locke Worthington, del. [A.A.S.B.] ) 

LVL — Chimney-piece from Boughton House .... i68 

LVIL — Chimney-piece from Lacock Abbey .... 

Harold Brakspear, del. i68 

LVIII.— A Chimnky-piece from Barlborough Hall . 

Col. Gale, photo. i68 

LIX. — Chimney-piece in King James's Room, Hatfield 

House Col. Gale, photo. 169 

LX. — Chimney-piece in the Great Chamber, South 

Wraxall Manor House . . W. Haywood, del. i6g 

LXL — Chimney-piece from Hardwick Hall .... 

J. L. Robinson, photo. i6g 

LXIL — Chimney-piece from Ford House, Newton Abbot 

J. A. G., del. 170 

LXHL — Chimney-piece at Whiston, Sussex .... 

Cul. Gale, photo. 171 

LXIV.— Two Chimney-pieces from Bolsover Castle 

Col. Gale, photo. 171 

LXV. — Chimney-piece at Bromley-by-Bow Palace . . .172 

LXVI. — Chimney-piece from Castle Ashby .... 

Bedford Lemere, London, photo. 172 

LXVII. — Ceiling and Frieze from Cardinal Wolsey's 

Closet, Hampton Court Palace .... 

J. A. G., photo. 175 

LXVIII. — Ceiling at Deene Hall . . . J. A. G., photo. 177 

LXIX. — Ceiling from the "Reindeer" Inn, Banbury 

J. .'\. G., photo. 178 

LXX. — Ceiling of the Great Chamber, Aston Hall . 

From W. Niven's Account 0/ Aston Hall. 180 

LXXI. — Ceiling of King Charles' Bedroom, Aston Hall 

From W. ^iven''s Account of Aston Hall. 180 

LXXIL -Staircase from Birghley House, Stamford 

After Richardson. 187 

J-XXIII. — Plans of Staircasf:s from John Thorpe's Drawings 

In the Soane Museum Collection. 189 

LXXIV. — Staircase, .Dudley Fnd . . C. J. Richardson, del. 194 

LXXV'.— The Lonc; Gallery, Haddon Hall .... 

G. W. Wilson, Aberdeen, photo. 196 

LXX VI. — The LoN{i Gallery. Aston Hali 

Harold Baker, photo. 196 





LXXVII. — Glass Panel from Moreton Old Hall . 

John West, del. ig8 
LXX\'III. — Four Examples of Lead Glazlng from 


I6I1 • . . . . 199 

LXXIX. — Two Street Houses from Oxford and Stratford- 

ON-AvoN ......... 202 

LXXX. — The Village Cross, Brigstock 

Miss Dryden, photo. 211 
LXXXI. — Details of the Chichester Tomh, Pilton 

Church ......... 218 

LXXXn.- Choir Screen from All Saints' Church, Tilnfy . 

C. A. Nicholson, del. 219 
LXXXIII. — PiLPiT IN Edington Church ..... 

K. Shekleton Balfour, del. 221 
LXXXIV. — John Thorpe's Drawing for Sir Jarvis Clifton's 

House . From the Soane Museum Collection. 231 
LXXXV'.- Unnamed Plan and Elevation . . John Thorpe. 234 
LXXXVT. — Plan "for Sir W'^i- Haseridge" . John Thorpe. 235 
LXXXVTI. — Elevation of Plan entitlicd "for Sir W^l' 

Haseridge " John Thorpe. 235 


Note. — The letters "A.A.S.B." denote that the subject is reproduced from 
The Arcliitecturul Association Sketch Book, with authority of the Draughtsman 
and by permission of the Committee. 


1. Tomb of Prince Arthur in Worcester Cathedral . 

J. L. Robinson, photo. lo 

2. Tomb of one of the Cokayne Family, Ashbourne Church. 

j. A. G., photo. II 

3. Henry VII. 's Tomb; Detail of Ornament .... 

H. (). Cre.sswell, del. 12 

4. Tomb of John Harrington, Exton Churcli . J. A. G., photo. 13 

5. Tomb of Thomas Cave. Stanford Church . J. A. (i.. photo. 13 

6. .. .. .. ICnd Panel . . J- A. G., photo. 14 

7. Tomb of Sir George Vernon. Bakewell Chinch . 

J. A. (j.. photo. 14 

8. Tomb of Sir Thomas Andrew. Charwelton Church . 

Miss Dryden, photo. 15 
g. Tomb of — Bradbourne, Ashbourne Church J. A. (i., photo. 16 
ID. Panel from the Tomb of Elizabeth Driny. Hawstead Church. 

J. A. (].. del. 17 

11. Tomb of Henry. Lord Marney. Layer Marney Church 

J. Shewell Corder, del. 18 

12. Carving from the Sedilia. Wymondham Church. J. A. G., (.\v\. ig 

13. Cowdray House, Sussex ; Vaulting Rib of Porch. J. \. G., del. ig 

14. Chantry of the Countess of Salisbmy. Christchurch. from the 

North Aisle .......... 20 

15. Th(> Salisbury Chantry, Christchurch ; Detail of Carving. 

J. .\. G., plioto. 21 

16. Prior Draper's Chantry, Christcliurch ; Head of Doorw.iy. 21 

17. Christchurch ; Divisions between Miserere Seats 

J. A. G.. photo. 22 
iS. ,, Hcnch-end in Choir . . ]. ,\. C... |)hoto. 23 



ig. Doorway and Panelling in the Gallery at the Vyne, near 

Basingstoke J. A. G., photo. 24 

20. Screen on the North Side of Choir, Winchester Cathedral 

(with Mortuary Chest) 

21. Canopy of Stalls, Henry VIl.'s Chapel, Westminster 

A. W. Pugin, del. 

22. Detail from Stalls, Henry VIl.'s Chapel, Westminster 

G. G. Woodward, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 

23. The Spring Pew, Lavenham Church . J. L. Robinson, photo. 

24. Detail from the Spring Pew, Lavenham Church . 

C. R. Pink, del. 

25. Roof of the Hall, Eltham Palace 

E. and S. H. Barnsley, del. 

26. Roof of the Great Hall, Hampton Court Palace . 

A. W. Pugin, del. 

27. Details from the Roof of the Great Hall, Hampton Court. 

A. W. Pugin, del. 

28. Hampton Court ; Head of Door to Great Hall. J. A. G., photo. 

29. Lacock Abbey; Tower at South-east Corner . 

W. Haywood, del. 

30. ,, ,, Stone Table in Tower .... 

Sidney Brakspear, photo. 

31. ,, ,, Stone Table in Tower .... 

Sidney Brakspear, photo. 

32. ,, ,, The Stables . . . W. Haywood, del. 
32A. Panel from the Sedilia, Wymondham Church . J. A. G., del. 

33. Great Chalfield House ; Plan . . After T. L. Walker. 

After J. Britton 

J. L. Robinson, photo 

After A. W. Pugin 

After Heber Rimmer 

34. Oxburgh Hall ; Ground Plan 

35. ,, ,, Entrance Tower 

36. East Barsham House ; Ground Plan 

37. Compton Winyates ; Ground Plan 

38. Sutton Place, near Guildford ; Ground Plan . 

S. Forster Hay ward, del. 

39. „ „ Details . A. C. Gladding, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 

40. ,, ,, Part Elevation of Courtj'ard 

A. C. Gladding, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 

41. Layer Marney Tower ; Entrance Tower 

Arnold B. Mitchell, del. 53 

42. Hengrave Hall ; Ground Plan . . . After J. Britton. 54 

43. „ ,, West Front . . J. L. Robinson, photo. 55 

44. ,, ,, Corbelling of Bay Window over Entrance 
Archway . . . . . . J. A. G., del. 56 



45. Morelon Old Hall ; Ground Plan . . After J. Strong. 57 

46. Kirby Hall ; Ground Plan . . . A. G. Leighton, del. 61 

47. Montacute House ; Ground Plan . After J. N. Johnston. 65 

48. ., ., Garden Front, with Court and Garden- 

houses . . J. L. Robinson, photo. 66 

49. Barlborough Hall ; Plan of Principal Floor . J. A. G., del. 67 

50. ., .. Fntrance Front . . Col. Gale, photo. 68 

51. Doddington Hall; Ground Plan . . . J. A. G., del. 6g 

52. Burton Agnes Hall; Ground Plan . . . J. A. G., del. 70 

53. Aston Hall, near Birmingham ; Ground Plan. After W. Niven. 71 

54. .. .. ., North Wing Harold Baker, photo. 72 

55. Holdenby House; Plan of Lay-out . From an old Survey. 75 

56. Doddington Hall ; Block Plan .... J. A. G., del. 77 

57. Stokesay Castle ; The Gatehouse . . Ccl. Gale, photo. 78 

58. Cold Ashton Manor House ; Fntrance Gateway . 

J. A. (i., photo. 79 

59. Winwick ; Gateway to Manor House . J. A. G., photo. 79 

60. Gateway to Almshouses, Oundle . . J. A. G., photo. 80 

61. Holdenby House; Gateways to Basecourt .... 

Miss Dryden, photo. 80 

62. Kenvon Peel Hall ; Gateway at Side of Court J. A. G., photo. 81 

63. Doddington Hall; Fntrance Doorway . -J- A. G., del. 82 

64. Porch at Chelvey Court, Somerset . . J. A. G., photo. 8j 

65. Doorway at Nailsea Court, Somerset . J. A. G., photo. 84 

66. Doorway at Gayhurst Manor House . . J. A. G., photo. 85 

67. Doorway at Cold Ashton Manor House . J. .\. (i., photo. 86 

68. Doorway at Cheney Court . . . . J. A. G., photo. 86 

69. Woollas Hall ; Part of Fntrance I'ront Harold Baker, photo. 87 

70. Porch at Gorhambury, near St. Albans (photo) . . . 88 

71. Hambleton Old Hall (photo) 89 

72. Chastleton House; Ground Plan . After J. A. C'ossins. 90 

73. Doorway at Lyddingtoii .... John Bilson, del. 91 

74. Doorway at Broadway ..... J. .X. G., del. 92 

75. Doorway at Aylesford Hall . . W. rali)i)t Brown, del. ((3 

76. Kirby Hall ; South Side of Court . . V. W. iUill, photo. <)5 

77. ,, ,, West Front .... J. .V. ( i., photo. (j6 

78. Longleat House, Wiltshire (plioto) q6 

79. WoUaton Hall ; Plan of Principal Floor . After P. K. Allen. >)y 

80. Charlton House, Wiltshire (photo) ...... <)8 

81. Ast(jn Hall ; The South Front . . Haioldi^akcr, photo. <)9 

82. Corsham Court, Wiltshire . . . J. L. Robinson, photo. 100 

83. Kentwell Hall J- L- Robinson, photo, loo 

K..\. h 






99 A, 

I II. 

I 12. 


I 18. 

J. A. G., photo. 
J. A. G., photo. 
J. A. G., del. 
J. A. G., photo. 
. J. A. G., del. 
L. Robinson, photo. 
. W. Riley, del. 

Cheney Court ...... 

The Manor House, Cold Ashton 

,, ,, ,, ,, Ground Plan. 

Bolsover Castle 

,, ,, Ground Plan 

Condover Hall ; The Garden Front . J 
Clegg Hall, near Rochdale . 
Courtyard, Ingelby Manor (photo) ...... 

House at Mayfield . . W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 

Cowdray House ; Part of Court . . J. A. G., photo. 

Hoghton Tower ; Bay of Hall . . . J. A. G., photo. 
Burton Agnes Hall ; Bay Windows Frith, Reigate, photo. 
House at Bourton-on-the-Water ...... 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 
Cottage at Steventon .... Col. Gale, photo. 

Sections of Various Window Jambs and Mullions. J. A. G., del. 
Window Sill at Wollaton Hall . . W. Talbot Brown, del. 
Head of Window from Hatfield House . . J. A. G., del. 
A Northamptonshire Cottage . . Miss Dryden, photo. 
Stone Finials and Kneelers . . . . J. A. G., del. 

The Manor House, Finstock \V. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 

Cottage at Rothwell J- A. G., del. 

Cottage at Treeton, near Sheffield . . C. Hadfield, del. 
Cottage at Steventon ..... Col. Gale, photo. 
Wollaton Hall ; One of Corner Towers (photo) 


Kirby Hall ; Part of West Front 

Gable in the Court, Rushton Hall 

Gable in the Court, Apethorpe Hall 

Exton Old Hall ; Stone Parapet 

Bramshill House ; Stone Parapet 

Audley End ; Stone Parapet 

Rushton Hall ; Gable on East Front 

Chimney at Droitwich 

Brick Chimney from Huddington Court House 

Brick Chimney from Bardwell Manor House 

Chimney at Toller Fratrum 

Chimney at Kirby Hall 

Typical Chimney in the Midlands 

Chimney at Chipping Campden . 

Chimney at Drayton House 

Chimney at Triangular Lodge, Rushton 

Col. Gale, photo. 

, J. A. G., del. 

. J. A. G., del. 

. J.A. G., del. 

After H. Shaw. 

After C.J. Richardson. 

Col. Gale, photo. 

W. Habershon, del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

J. A. G., del. 

Bean Lodge, near Petworth . W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 



124. Lead Rain-water Head from Haddon Hall .... 

From Mr. W. R. Lethaby's Lcad-ccork, by permission of 

Macmillan & Co. 131 

125. Lead Rain-water Head from Haddon Hall .... 

From Mr. W. R. Lethaby's Leadicork, by permission of 

Macmillan & Co. 131 

126. Lead Rain-water Head from Haddon Hall .... 

From Mr. W. R. Lethaby's Leadwork, by permission of 

Macmillan & Co. 131 

127. Pipe Head from Sherborne . . . Henry Shaw, del. 131 

128. Lead Pipe Head from Knole House ..... 

W. Talbot Brown, del. 132 

129. Lead Pipe Head from Bramshill House .... 

W. Talbot Brown, del. 132 

130. Gayhurst ; Stone Pillar in Garden . . J. A. G., photo. 133 

131. Gateway in a House at Lingfield . . Arthur Ardron, del. 134 

132. Chipping Campden ; The Garden-house . Percy D.Smith, del. 136 

133. EyamHall; Plan of Lay-out .... J. A. G., del. 137 

134. Bedroom in Deene Hall ; Plaster Ceiling ; Tapestry on Walls. 

J. A. G., photo. 147 

135. Haddon Hall; A Corner of the Great Hall J. A. G., photo. 149 

136. Panelling of the Time of Henry VHL . J. A. G., photo. 150 

137. Example of Linen Panelling, Stanford Church J. A. G., photo. 151 

138. A Panel of the Time of Henry VHL . J. A. G., photo. 152 

139. Door at Castle Rising . . . W.Galsworthy Davie, photo. 153 

140. Panelling of Door at Beckington Abbey . J. A. G., photo. 154 

141. Door at Nailsea Court .... J. A. (i., photo. 155 

142. Part of Reredos (removed) at Stowe-Nine-Churches 

J. A. G., plioto. 156 

143. Part of the Court Pew, Chelvey Church . J. A. (i., photo. 157 

144. Part of Screen (removed), Stowe-Nine-Churches . 

J. A. G., photo. 158 

145. The Hall, Knole House (photo) ....... 159 

146. WoUaton Hall; The Roof of the Great Hall . 

Percy K. .Allen, del. i()o 

147. Roof of Great Hall, Kirby . (ieorge P. Bankart, photo. i()i 

148. Panelling from Sizergh Hall (now in the Victoria and .Albert 

Museum) F. Dare Clapham. del. 163 

149. Doorway, .Abbott's Hospital, Guildford . J. .A. G., photo. ir)4 

150. Latch from Abbott's Hospital, (iuildford .... 

1:. A. Rickards, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 1(15 

151. Latch from Haddon Hall . . R. S. Dods, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 165 

b 2 



152. Lock-plates, Latches, &c. . . . After C. J. Richardson. 166 

153. Casement Fastener from Haddon Hall 

R. S. Dods, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 166 

154. Key-plate from Abbott's Hospital, Guildford .... 

E. A. Rickards, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 167 

155. A Knocker After C. J. Richardson. 167 

156. Wood Chimney-piece, Benthall Hall . . B. J. Fletcher, del. 170 

157. Stone Chimney-piece, Bolsover Castle. J. L. Robinson, photo. 171 

158. Ceilingof the Presence Chamber, Hampton Court. After Nash. 173 

159. Bosses from Ceilings at Hampton Court . J. A. G., photo. 174 

160. Patera to a Ceiling at Hampton Court . . J. A. G., del. 175 

161. Part of the Ceiling in the Long Gallery, Haddon Hall. 

J. A. G., photo. 176 

162. Part of a Coved Ceiling at Beckington Abbey J. A. G., photo. 177 

163. Coved Ceiling, Beckington Abbey . . J. A. G., photo. 177 

164. Part of a Ceiling from Sizergh Hall (now in the Victoria and 

Albert Museum) . . . . F. Dare Clapham, del. 178 

165. Ceiling from Benthall Hall . . . • B. J. Fletcher, del. 179 

166. Ceiling in Gate-house, Haddon Hall 

R. S. Dods, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 180 

167. Pendants of Plaster Ceilings . . After C. J. Richardson. 181 

168. Examples of Plaster Friezes from Montacute, Audley End, and 

Charlton House .... After C. J. Richardson. 182 

169. Plaster Frieze from Montacute House ..... 

C. J. Richardson, del. 183 

170. Part of Plaster F"rieze, Carbrook Hall ..... 

W. Talbot Brown, del. 184 

171. Ceiling of a Triangular Bay Window at Little Charlton House. 

After C. J. Richardson. 184 

172. Staircase at Lyveden Old Building . . . J. A. G., del. 186 

173. Details of Staircase, Hambleton Old Hall . 

W. Talbot Brown, del. 187 

174. Staircase from East Quantockshead . . . J. A. G., del. 187 

175. Details of Staircase, Lyveden Old Building . J. A. G., del. 188 

176. Pierced Baluster . ...... J. A. G., del. 189 

177. Staircase at Ockwells Manor House . . H. C. Pullin, del. 189 

178. .. ,, ,, ,, Plans and Details. 

H. C. Pullin, del. 190 

179. Staircase at Benthall Hall, Shropshire 

J. L. Robinson, photo, igi 

180. Staircase at a House at Warwick . . . J. A. G., del. 192 

181. Staircase at the Charterhouse . . Roland W. Paul, del. 193 



182. Portion of Glazing from Ightham Church . . J. A. G., del. 197 

183. Glass Panel from one of the Windows at Gilling Castle. 

J. A. G., del. 198 

184. House formerly in North Street, Exeter .... 

W. R. Lethaby, del. [A.A. S.B.J. 200 

185. House in the High Street, Canterbury ..... 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 201 

i85. Old House, High Town. Hereford. Valentine, Dundee, photo. 202 

187. Corbels, " King's Arms," Sandwich ..... 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 204 

188. Corbel at Canterbury . . . W. Talbot Brown, del. 205 
i8g. Corbel at Canterbury . . . W. Talbot Brown, del. 205 
190. Corbel at Orton Waterville . . W. Talbot Brown, del. 205 
igi. The "Swan" Inn, Lechlade . W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 206 

192. Desk in Almshouses, Corsham . . . W. Ha\-wood, del. 207 

193. Almshouses, Chipping Campden. W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 208 

194. Market House, Shrewsbury (photo) ...... 208 

195. Market House, Wymondham (photo) ..... 209 

196. Market House, Chipping Campden ..... 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 210 

197. School at Burton Latimer . . . Miss Dryden, photo. 211 
ig8. Mill at Bourne Pond, Colchester . . Col. Gale, photo. 212 

199. Hawking-tower, Althorp Park (photo) 213 

200. Plan of Hawking-tower, Althorp Park . . J. A. G., del. 213 

201. The Sign of the " White Hart " Inn, formerly at Scole 

I''. A. Heffer, del. 214 

202. The Chichester Tomb, Pilton Church ..... 

Vickery Brothers, Barnstaple, photo. 215 

203. Alabaster I*"rie/;e from one of the F"oljambe Tombs, Chesterfield 

Church ...... W.Talbot l^rown, del. 216 

204. Tomb of G. Kecd, Bredon Church . Harold Baker, photo. 217 

205. Tomb of Sir Wni. Spencer, Yarnton Church .... 

Harold Baker, photo. 218 

206. The Pulpit, Worth Church . W. (ialsworthy Davie, plioto. 219 

207. The Pulpit. Blythborough Church 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 220 

208. The Pulpit, Chesterfield Church . . J. A. G.. photo. 221 

209. Font Canopy, Pilton Church ....... 

W. Galsworthy Davie, photo. 222 

210. Window of North Aisle, Kelmarsli Church J. A. G., photo. 223 

211. Keystones from Com])ton Winyatcs Church .... 

W. Talbot l^rown. del. 22; 




212. Door in the Screen of the Chapel, Peterhouse College, Cam- 

bridge K. S. Dods, del. [A.A.S.B.]. 

213. Plan of the Chateau of Anssi-le-Franc copied from 

Du Cerceau ...... John Thorpe. 

214. Part Elevation of the Chateau of Anssi- 

Turrets added 

215. Elevation copied from De Vries 

216. An Unnamed Plan 

217. An Unnamed Ground Plan 

218. Upper Plan of Fig. 217 
2ig. Elevation of Figs. 217, 218 

220. An Unnamed Plan 

221. Ground and Upper Plans, Unnamed 

222. Elevations of Plans in Fig. 221 . 

223. Unnamed Plan and Elevation . 

224. Plan and Elevation of House for Mr. W-^- Powell 

John Thorpe. 

225. Plan of House for Mr. Johnson y*^ Druggist . John Thorpe. 

226. An Unnamed Plan ...... John Thorpe. 

227. Ground Plan of House for Sir Jo. Danvers, Chelsey 

John Thorpe. 

228. Upper Plan and Elevation for Sir Jo. Danvers, Chelsey . 

John Thorpe. 

229. An Unnamed Elevation ..... John Thorpe. 

230. ., ., ..... John Thorpe. 

231. ,, Plan (Circular) .... John Thorpe. 

le- Franc, with three 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 
John Thorpe. 














The progress of style in the mediaeval architecture of 
England was regular and continuous : so much so, that any 
one thoroughly acquainted with its various phases can tell the 
date of a building within some ten years by merely examining the 
mouldings which embellish it. These successive phases, more- 
over, merge into one another so gradually, that although it has 
been possible to divide them into four great periods — called 
Norman, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular — yet the 
transition from one to the other is unbroken, and the whole course 
of development can be traced as regularly as the change from 
the simplicity of the trunk of a tree to the multiplicity of its 
leaves. For about four centuries (a.d. iioo — 1500) this growth 
continued, English architecture finding within itself the power 
of progression. But about the beginning of the sixteenth centur}- 
it began to feel the influence of an outside power — that of Italy 
— which acted upon it with increasing force until, after two 
centuries, its native characteristics had nearly disappeared, and 
Italian buildings were copied in England almost line for line. 

The object of the following pages is to display the effect of 
this foreign influence upon our native architecture up to the 
point when it became predominant, and stamped our buildings 
with a character more Classic than Gothic. But it will be 


desirable first of all to glance shortly at the causes which led 
to Italy having this extraordinary influence, and at the general 
effect which that influence produced upon England. 

England, in common with the rest of North-western Europe, 
was the home of Gothic architecture, instinct with the mystery 
and romantic spirit of the Middle Ages. Italy was the home 
of Classic architecture, which it had cherished since the great 
days of Rome. The Gothic manner was never thoroughly 
acquired in Italy, even in those parts which lay nearest to 
France and Germany, although it affected their buildings to 
a certain extent. The best examples of Italian Gothic hold a 
low rank in comparison with the masterpieces of the northern 
style. Classic forms were those in which the Italian designer 
naturally expressed himself, and it was these which he employed 
when that great revival of the Arts which took place in the 
fifteenth century, set him building. The earlier Renaissance in 
letters " the spring before the spring," of which the great figures 
are Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio, heralded a great awakening 
of architectural energy, and Italian architects, in solving their 
new problems, mingled the results of a deep study of ancient 
examples with much of mediaeval spirit and tendency. They 
set themselves resolutely to revive the architecture which had 
been one of the glories of ancient Rome ; but they could not, 
even had they wished it, free themselves from the spirit of 
their own age, and the result was the development of a kind 
of architecture which used old forms in new ways, and which 
has gained the distinguishing title of the Renaissance style. 

But the awakening in architecture was only one manifestation 
of the spirit which was abroad : in painting, sculpture, and all 
the applied arts, as well as in literature, the same vivifying 
tendency was at work. With the fall of Constantinople in 
1453, an event which flooded Western Europe with Greek 
scholars and Greek literature, a tremendous impulse was given 
to the new aspirations. A new world of history and poetry had 
been discovered, just as, forty years afterwards, a new world of 
fact and reality was discovered by Columbus and Cabot. The 
tvv'o events combined to excite men's imagination to an extra- 
ordinary degree, and their stimulating effect was visible in all 
branches of mental activity. There was a marvellous mingling 
of the old and the new. In the past there was an inexhaustible 
well of knowledge and suggestion ; in the present a boundless 


opening for enterprise and fresh experiences. Just at this 
juncture the invention of printing was being perfected, and it 
came at the precise time to help the dissemination of the new 
ideas. The result was that great movement of the human mind 
known as the Renaissance, which in the space of a century 
altered the life of Western Europe. In politics it shattered the 
international fabric of the Middle Ages ; in religion it brought 
about the momentous change which we call the Reformation ; in 
art it wedded faultless execution with an extraordinary fecundity 
of design. There followed an age richer, perhaps, than any 
other in original genius and fertility of mental products. Ital\- 
was at the centre of this upheaval. To her were attracted 
students from all parts of Europe, not excepting England. 
She herself was teeming with men of talent in all branches of 
learning and the arts. It was inevitable that she should part 
with some of her superfluous energy to the surrounding lands, 
touched as they were, though less intensely, with the new 
spirit. So general was the enthusiasm that her neighbours 
were only too glad to welcome whatever Italy could send, 
even if not of her very best. The new movement eventually 
reached the distant shores of England, but as the stream 
flowed across Europe it became tinged with the peculiarities of 
the various lands over which it passed, and each country can 
show its own version of the Italian Renaissance in architecture 
as well as in other matters. Spain has one version, France 
another, Germany another, and England yet another ; and 
there is this peculiarity about the English version — that it is 
coloured by the two channels through which it came, I'^rance 
and the Netherlands. 

The whole circumstances of tiie time being conducive to the 
spread of Italian ideas and forms (which are only the embodi- 
ment of ideas), how did they affect English architecture? 
They found in England a style long established, and still 
endowed with considerable vigour. At no period of its history 
had this style been so peculiarly Enghsh in its more elal)orate 
efforts, the special development known as fan-vaulting, for 
instance — of which the flnest examples are to be seen in the 
chapel at King's College, Cami:)ridge, and Henry \TI.'s chapel 
at Westminster (see Plate I.) — being found only in this 

The Gothic style of England and the Classic style of Italy 


had next to nothinf^ in common. Their modes of expression 
were essentially different. The former was elastic, informal, 
readily adapted to different needs. Like Cleopatra, it was of 
infinite variety ; its component parts were small and manifold, 
its tendenc}' was towards well-marked vertical lines. Its out- 
ward appearance expressed its inward arrangement : a window 
more or less, a buttress here, a chimney there — so long as they 
were wanted — offered no difficulty to the designer. Classic 
architecture, on the other hand, was formal and restricted by 
considerations of symmetry ; its component parts were simple 
and less mobile than those of Gothic ; its tendency was towards 
strong horizontal lines. The Gothic string-course, for instance, 
would jump up and down to adapt itself to a door or window; it 
broke round projecting piers or buttresses without hesitation. 
But the classic cornice continued in the same straight line, 
neither rising nor falling, and only breaking forward round a 
pier or column after due deliberation. Its projection was far 
greater than that of any similar feature in Gothic work : it 
was consequently much less ductile. Compared to Gothic 
detail. Classic was unwieldy, even that more pliant version of 
it which had recently been evolved in Italy. The ornament, 
however, with which the Italian designers so freely adorned 
their architectural work, unlike that of the ancients, was 
generally small in scale and elastic in character. Here, there- 
fore, was a feature common to both styles, and we shall find 
that it is in the ornament of buildings that the change first took 
place. It will be seen that the progress of the new style was 
very gradual : it showed itself first in small objects, such as 
tombs and chantries, and in the unimportant detail of larger 
buildings ; then it affected the more significant detail ; and 
ultimately, after many years, it controlled the organic concep- 
tion and expression : but this final development did not take 
place till after the close of the period which we are to consider. 
That which we are to watch is the struggle of the old and the 
new : the encounter of the new spirit steeped in classical 
learning, with the old Gothic traditions and methods. 

The great monuments of English Gothic architecture are to 
be found in ecclesiastical buildings; those of the succeeding 
phase are domestic in character. The change of thought in 
religious matters, which was proceeding all through the 
sixteenth century, was not favourable to church building, and 


after the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII. no 
more churches were built. But the new nobility, rich with the 
spoils of the dissolved houses and the traffic of the Indies, 
had acquired a taste for grandeur and dignity in outward life 
that required great mansions for its display. It is therefore 
primarily in the Elizabethan mansion that we must watch the 
contest between the old style and the new — a contest rendered 
more piquant by the fact that the new style had no experience 
of this particular kind of building in the land of its origin. 
The English house had developed on lines widely different 
from the Italian ; it had to meet other wants, it had to contend 
with a different climate, it was subject to other traditions. 
The new style when it came, had to harmonize these strange 
traditions as well as its own, derived from a far distant past, 
with the original and fertile spirit of the age. The result 
is one of abiding interest. Almost any of the great houses 
built in the reign of Elizabeth will show to the casual spectator 
examples of crudity in detail and imperfect classical proportion, 
mingled with reminiscences of Gothic notions ; but a deeper 
scrutiny will disclose the fact that in spite of these short- 
comings there is a national individuality and sense of genius 
in the handling of materials sufficient to raise the result to the 
dignity of a distinct style. Just as the " Faerie Queen " shows 
a jumble of heathen gods and cardinal virtues. Christian 
knights and Pagan nymphs, and yet withal is a consummate 
work of art, so the buildings of the period — 

" With many towers, and terrace mounted high, 
And all their tops bright glistering with gold," 

in spite of their inconsistencies, have a fertilit\- of fancy, a 
wealth of ornament, and a simplicity of treatment which 
raise them to a similar high plane. And just as the literature 
of the period, as it became more in accortlance with rule, lost 
half its originality and more than half its fascination, so 
Renaissance Architecture, as it passed from the Elizabethan 
to the Jacobean, and so to the succeeding phases, became 
more homogeneous, more scholarly, more true to its classical 
origin, and yet withal lost vitality in the process. The full 
meaning of that great century which stretched from the 
divorce of Henry VIII. to the accession of Charles I. cannot 
be grasped unless it is always borne in mind that not only was 


a new style supplanting an old one, but that it was doing so 
at a time when the originality and richness of men's minds 
were at their height. 

But while in England the new style was winning its way, in 
Italy it was passing the zenith of its vigour. The continued 
study of ancient monuments enabled architects to reduce the 
old methods of design to a system which could be acquired 
with ease, and architectural design became less a matter of 
invention than a capacity for adapting new buildings to old 
rules. In course of time the same state of things estab- 
lished itself in England. The invention of printing brought 
to the eye of English craftsmen not only plans and pictures of 
buildings recently erected in foreign lands, but also the rules 
which celebrated Italian architects had laid down for the pro- 
portion of buildings generally — rules founded partly on the 
study of ancient fabrics and partly on the august authority of 
Vitruvius. The application of these rules to circumstances and 
needs which had never been contemplated by their authors was 
the problem which English designers set themselves to solve. 
During the earlier years of their attempt they were almost 
baffled. Then came Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren, 
and by their commanding genius they made the rules bend to 
their will; but in the eighteenth century the rules triumphed 
completely, and, as already said, Italian buildmgs were copied 
in England almost line for line. It is the work of the men 
who were baffled that we are now to examine : work which, 
judged from the standpoint of their better tutored successors, 
may almost be regarded as a failure, but work which exhibits a 
vitality, a fancy, and a sense of romance for which we look 
in vain in the more correct architecture of the eighteenth 

It is not surprising that England, in common with the rest 
of Europe, should have felt the influence of Italy. It is, 
perhaps, rather a matter for wonder that she should not have 
feit it earlier ; that the architectural Renaissance should have 
continued for more than a century, and have reached its prime 
in Italy before it landed on our shores and began to touch 
the more susceptible places of our English stonework. But 
Brunelleschi, who crowned the cathedral of Florence with its 
dome, and reared the Pitti Palace, had been dead seventy 
years ; the delicate sculpture on the fagade of the Certosa of 


Pavia was five-and-twenty years old ; and Venice was busy 
lininj^ her canals with palaces, when Torrij^iano broiij^ht the 
first Italian forms to England ifhd applied them to the tomb of 
Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey. 

But the way had been paved beforehand. For some fifty 
years it had been the custom of English scholars to repair to 
Italy to learn the humanities. They returned home familiar, 
if not in love, with Italian ideas and methods of expression, 
and if they themselves did nothing outwardly to hasten the 
impending change, it was their poverty and not their will 
which consented to inaction. Fine building requires money, 
and accordingly it is in the work of monarchs, noblemen, and 
great dignitaries of the Church that we find the first evidences 
of the Italian invasion. Henry VIII. was the outward and 
visible, although unconscious, agent who guided the new 
movement to our shores. His great Cardinal, Wolsey, was 
not less active in building, but Henry was the royal patron, 
vying with other monarchs in obtaining the services of dis- 
tinguished artists to adorn his surroundings. Now most of 
the distinguished artists at that time were foreigners, hailing 
chietl}- from Italy. There were plenty of excellent English 
workmen it is true, but it was the fashion to employ Italians. 
Henry's rival, Francis I. of I'rance, had secured the services 
of several such men ; why not he ? So his efforts were frequent, 
although they met with comparatively small success. Italians 
were loth to leave their own sunny surroundings, where all men 
were in sympathy with them and their ways, for the chilly fogs 
and the barbarous manners of those " beasts of English," as 
Cellini called them. A few men complied with his recjuests ; 
of these, Torrigiano was the most celebrated. To him Henry 
entrusted the making of his father's tomb, discarding the design 
approved by the dead monarch, and taking the work out of the 
English hands already engaged upon it. None of the other 
Italians whose names have been preserved have left any great or 
permanent mark in the country to which the\- came miwilHngly, 
and which they left gladly. The other great foreign figure 
which stands out among those of minor importance is that of 
a German, Holbein. liut though Holbein did much work in 
England in different branches of art, he left no school, nor can 
the influence of his manner be traced far, if at all, besond his 
death. Names of Italians appear occasionally as being employed 

K.A. H 

8 LiMrn:i) i:xtent of Italian detail. 

by the King, and among them John of Padua occurs most 
frequently ; but no one knows who he was, nor what work he 
left behind him. His name has often been attached to different 
buildings, and he has been confused with John Thorpe, but no 
evidence has yet been adduced actually connecting him with 
work that still survives. One of the curious and provoking 
facts about the early years of the Renaissance manner in 
England is the way in which Italian names elude pursuit. 
Work which looks as though it must have been done by a 
foreigner has no name that can be attached to it. Other work, 
which is almost as foreign in appearance, is found on investi- 
gation to be that of an Englishman. 

Henry's rivalry with Francis I., his friendship and his feuds 
with that monarch, seem to have had some effect on archi- 
tectural ornament, for much that was executed during Henry's 
lifetime has a French flavour about it. It is curious, indeed, to 
observe how little hold actual Italian detail obtained upon the 
fancy of English workmen. It was not direct from Italy that 
they would take it. The Italians were not liked b}- the English 
people at large ; protests were raised by the more thoughtful 
against the Italianizing of our young nobles. The popular 
conception of the subtle Italian was embodied by Shakespeare 
in lachimo and the more infernal lago. What Italian detail 
we find in Henry VIII.'s time is chiefly superficial ornament, 
and even that is by no means of universal application. It is to 
be found up and down the country in considerable quantity, 
but side by side with w^ork which is still thoroughly Gothic in 
character. Islip, the Abbot of Westminster, who laid the 
foundation stone of Henry VI I. 's chapel, and who saw the 
erection of that monarch's tomb — the great central feature for 
which the chapel was built— was not sufficiently enamoured 
of the new ornament to cause his own tomb to be of the 
same character. On the contrary, the screen which encloses 
his chapel is free from any touch of actual Renaissance 
detail, although erected some fifteen years after Henry VII. 's 

It was through Dutch and German channels that the Italian 
manner came to stay. This was the result partly of ties of 
race and religion, partly of commercial intercourse, and partly 
of the general imitation of Dutch methods which prevailed in 
England during the latter half of the sixteenth centur}'. Irt 


commercial and political as well as naval and military matters 
this imitation is well known to students of that period. The 
character of Renaissance work in England during Henry VIII.'s 
time inclined to Italian and the French version of Italian. 
After his death it inclined towards the Dutch version. In both 
cases it was strongly infused with English feeling ; but there is 
this difference, that whereas the earlier phase ended abruptly, 
no merging of it into the latter being traceable, the second 
phase can be followed step by step into the pronounced 
Italian of Inigo Jones's mature manner. We can see how some 
features were dropped and others acquired, until, by the double 
process of shedding and assimilation, the style of Burghley 
House glides imperceptibly into that of the Banqueting Hall 
at Whitehall. 



In order properly to understand the position of the EHza- 
bethan mansion in the story of architectural development, it is 

necessary to examine 
the work which inter- 
venes between it and 
the last of the Gothic 

The first work with 
Renaissance detail that 
was done in England 
was the tomb of Kinj^ 
Henry VII. — the actual 
altar-tomb, not the 
metal screen enclosing 
it. There is no foreign 
iniluence to be detected 
either in the screen or 
in the wonderful fan- 
tracery vault that 
spreads itself above 
(Plate I,). These 
are essentially English 
productions, and yet 
there are certain parts 
of them which would 
lend themselves readily 
to the new - fashioned 
detail which was about 
to invade our shores ; 
parts which in subse- 
quent buildings were 
actually affected by it. 
But so far, that is up to 
the year 1509, when the 
king died, the chapel 
being still unfinished, 
Nor is there any in the 

I.— Tomb ok Prince Arthur (d. 1502) in Worcester 

there is no Renaissance detail. 


fine chantry in Worcester Cathedral, wherein King Henry's 
eldest son, Prince Arthur, who died in 1502, lies buried 
(Fig. i). The utmost that can be said is that here, as in 
the chapel at Westminster, the Gothic work is preparing to 
succumb to the new influence. It has been suggested that 
the king's own tomb was erected subsequently to that of his 
mother, the Countess of Richmond, who also lies in the Abbey. 
But the question 
is one of little 
importance ; no 
long period can 
separate the two, 
and the important 
point is that the 
actual invasion of 
the foreign stsle 
is a well-marked 
event, the circum- 
stances attending 
it are on record, 
its results still 
survive in an ex- 
cellent state of 

Henry VII. 
says in his will, 
dated 31st March, 
1509, that he had 
arranged for his 
tomb to be made 
in a certain 
manner,* and 

from other scjurces we gather that the men who were to do 
the work were certain English craftsmen, of whom Lawrence 
Imber, carver ; Drawswerd, sheriff of York ; Himiphrey Walker, 
founder; Nicholas Ewen, coppersmith; Robert Virtue, Robert 
Jenins, and John Lebons, master masons, were the chief. The 
last name is the only one with a foreign appearance, but it is 
a curious and rather significant fact that the design had been 

2. — ToMIl 01 ONK or TlllC CuKAVNK 1'aMM.V, AsHHOLUNK ClILKCH, 

Dkf<hy.shikk. Fiktkknth Ckntukv. 

* Britton's Aichilcctttral Atiliqiiitics. Vol. II. 


made by one " Master Pageny," as he was called by his 
English acquaintances, but whom his own countrymen called 
Paganino. No other work of Master Pageny's is known in 
England, but it seems tolerably clear that he is the same 

Paganino who de- 
signed the tomb of 
the French King 
Charles VIII. at 
St. Denis, and 
that Henry's 
tomb was to have 
been like it.* The 
project, however, 
fell through in 
consequence of 
the death of the 
king, and the pass- 
ing of the control 
of affairs into the 
hands of his son, 
Henry VIII. The 
new monarch dis- 
carded the old 
design entirely, 
and entrusted the 
work to Pietro 
T o r r i g i a n o , or 
Peter Torrisany, 
as he became on 
English lips. Tor- 
rigiano's design 
departed widely 
from English tra- 
ditions. The lead- 
ing idea of recum- 
bent figures upon an altar-tomb was retained — this idea indeed 
held the field for another three-quarters of a century — but the 
old practice of adorning the sides of the tomb with cusped 
panels, or figures of saints in niches, or angels holding shields 

* Architological Journal, 1894, " On the work of Florentine Sculptors in England," 
by Alfred Higgins, F. S.A. 

3. — HcNRV VII.'s Tomb. Detail. 



4. — Tomb of John Harrington (d. 1524), Exxon Church, 

of arms (Fig. 2), was abandoned ; and instead of the restrained 
architectural treatment of the Enghsh tradition, where the 
figures were soli- 
tary, and every 
fold of drapery 
harmonised with 
the main archi- 
tectural mem- 
bers, Torrigiano 
gave us the free 
treatment of the 
Italian sculptors. 
The general 
arrangement of 
the panels is 
simple enough 
(Plate II.) There 
are three circular 
wreaths on each 
of the longer 
sides of the 
tomb, divided by Italian pilasters adorned with arabesques, 
into which the rose and portcullis of the Tudors are introduced. 
A rose also fills 
each of the four 
spandrils formed 
by the circular 
wreaths. These 
wreaths were 
new to English 
eyes; so, too, was 
the treatment of 
the spandrils, 
where the flower 
is simply applied 
to the trianguhir 
space, instead (jf 
appearing to be 
a growth on the structure itself in the old Gothic way (Fig. 3). 
The panels themselves contain figures in action, figures which 
have cast away conventional attitudes and stiffness of attire, and 

5.— ToMH OK Thomas Ca\k (r). 155H), Stanford Church, 




6. — Tomb ok Thomas Cave (d. 155S). End Panel. 

comport themselves in the most natural way imaguiable. 
Henry's patron saints are there to the number of ten, but 

instead of stand- 
ing in niches, 
statuesque and 
motionless, they 
are grouped in 
pairs, every pair 
seeming inter- 
ested in a com- 
mon subject, 
instead of each 
individual being 
rapt in solitary 
As there are six 
panels, the ten 
patron saints are 
supplemented by 
two other figures — the Virgin with the Child, and St. Christo- 
pher, Another novelty appears in the shape of the four cherubs 

poised at each 
corner of the 
tomb; they have 
no niches or 
other architec- 
tural b a c k - 
ground ; the}' are 
detached pieces 
of sculpture, self- 
reliant ; their 
purpose, which 
they no longer 
fulfil, was to hold 
banners, but 
these have long 
The change of 

idea is complete, but it is a change that neser took hold of 
English craftsmen. They adopted the circular wreaths and 
the arabesqued pilasters, and so far as those features are 

7. — ToMU OF Sir Georgk Veknon (d. 1567), Bakewki.i. Chukch, 



concerned we see in this tomb the prototype of many that 
followed after. But the figures in action do not appear 
again. English tradition was too strong for the Italian 
influence to overcome it, and the principal way in which it 
was affected was that the panels became frequently divided by 
pilasters instead of by moulded members ; and that the angels, 
which had hitherto been solitary and devout, took on the 
attitude of heraldic supporters, and assumed a more mundane 

8. — T(JMii OE- Siu riioMAs Andkkw (d.ijOj), Cii,\invi;i,i (IN Cm ucii, 


appearance, or endeavoured to imitate the amorini of Italian 
craftsmen — an effort for which they were, as a rule, t(Jo elderly. 
The dividing pilasters were sometimes nothing more than 
spiral columns, and such a column is occasionally the only 
sign of the new feeling. In the tomb of John Harrington, 
who died in 1524 (Fig. 4), a spiral column at the angles 
and a certain stiffness in the cusped j)anels indicate the 
impending change. This change is still mort; marked in the 
Cave tomb (I'^ig. 5) at Stanfc^d ("hurch, where (in 1558) 
the sides have three circular panels containing, howexer, 
shields of arms, not figures, and the upj)er end exhibits the 
family shield supported by two angels. On the other hand. 



the opposite end (Fig. 6) shows the family of the deceased 
gentleman in a number of figures treated with a stiffness of 
pose and a conventionality of attire that still belong to the 
ancient style. There is a very similar tomb at Charvvelton to 
Sir Thomas Andrew, who died in 1563 (Fig. 8). In the tomb 
of Sir George \'ernon (Fig. 7), who died in 1567, the angle 
pilasters, with their vases and portcullises in low relief, recall 

those on Henry 
\TI.'stomb. The 
middle shield on 
the end is sur- 
rounded by a cir- 
cular wreath, 
while the shape 
of the shield and 
the strange form 
of the dividing 
pilasters show a 
still further depar- 
ture from the old 
detail. In the 
Bradbourne tomb 
of 1 58 1 (Fig. 9) 
panels have dis- 
appeared alto- 
gether, and the 
sides of the tomb 
are occupied by 
ligures of the 
children, who hold 
in a stiff and tiring 
manner, shields 
setting forth their marriages. There is a rather curious survival 
in the tomb of Fli^abeth Drury at Hawstead Church, in Suffolk, 
where, as late as 1610, a shield of arms is supported by two 
amorini (F"ig. 10). All these examples, selected from the tombs 
to be found in village churches, and covering a period of three- 
quarters of a centur\', tend to show that the Italianizing of the 
English workman, in this branch of art at any rate, was as 
incomplete as it was slow. The craftsman was, however, aware 
that a new influence was at work, and he was prepared to 

y. — ToMli OK — BkaIiBOLRNK (U. 1581), ASHBOLKNIC ChLKCH, 




succumb to it where circumstances were favourable. In certain 
districts circumstances were favourable, and accordingly in 
parts of the eastern and southern counties, notably at Layer 
Marney, in Essex, there are tombs in which the detail is more 
decidedly wrought after Italian models (Fig. 11 and Plate III.), 
although even here the difference is so great that any of them 
would look strangely out of place if transported to a church 
in Italy. 

The eastern and southern counties appear to have been 
specially affected by the new movement, for we find con- 
siderable traces of it scattered over wide areas, and affecting 
not only small objects like tombs, but permanent structures. 
We shall presently see it at Layer Marney Tower, and among 
other places at East Barsham and Great Snoring in Norfolk ; 
while in Wymondham Church, in Norfolk, the sedilia is made 
of what appear to be 
fragments of a tomb 
much resembling 
those at Layer 
Marney in character 
(Fig. 12). In the 
southern counties, 
Sutton Place, near 
Guildford, abounds 
in A n g 1 o - 1 1 a 1 i a n 
detail ; some of the woodwork at the Vyne, in Hampshire, 
is also affected by it. There is some very interesting work 
of the same nature at the Chapel of the Holy Ghost, at Basing- 
stoke; while at Christchurch, in the same county, the chantry 
of the Countess of Salisbury is strongly touched with the Italian 
influence, and at St. Cross, near Winchester, are the very 
beautiful fragments of a Renaissance screen (Plate VIL). 
Winchester itself has some good work in the choir of the 
Cathedral ; and still further west, at Bingham Melcombe, in 
Dorset, there is a charming gable of mixed P2nglish and 
Italian detail. At Lacock Abbey, in Wiltshire, there is a 
considerable amount of Renaissance work, wrought when the 
abbey buildings were converted into a dwelling-house soon 
after the dissolution oi the monasteries. 

Some of this work is in stone and some in wood, but some 
of it is in terra-cotta, and it would be an interesting task to 

10. — I'ROM TH1-; ToMK OK El.IZAKKTH DrIJHV (u. i6io), 

Hawstkai) Chi kch, Slfkoi.k. 




Qorth ^ySx «1 (Documnit 


5na» ot Rft 

II.— ToMii OF Hknkv, Loki) Maknkv (I). 1523), Laykr Marnky Church, Esskx. 

ascertain why this pronounced detail should have been largely 
confined to these particular districts. The stone and wood- 
work might have been carved by itinerant Italians wandering 
some distance from their ports of debarkation ; but the terra- 

Plate III. 


w . 

w r 

C/5 u 

ID Dtf 

^ 2 

o s 


'5 1 




O H 



-From thk Skhilia, Wymondham Church, Norkoi.k. 

cotta must have been cast, and need not have been cast close 
to where it was fixed, but abroad, and thence conveyed to 
almost any part of the country. Nevertheless, none of the 
work entirely loses its English character, whether it was done 
abroad or not. 
Some of it must 
certainly have 
been wrought 
by Italians, but 
about much of 
it the general 
impression pro- 
duced is that 
it was done by 
with Italian pro- 
clivities, rather 
than by Italians 
under EngHsh 

Nor was the 

foreign detail on the stone simply added to the English work 
after the native craftsmen had finished. It was not that the 
Englishman completed his work and then invited the Italian to 
come and do the carving after his own manner, but the two 
influences are curiously mixed. Take 
the fan-vaulting of the porch at Cow- 
dray (Plate IV.), for instance. In general 
appearance it is of the same famil}- as 
other fan-vaulting, of which the roof 
of the Chapel of the Red Mount at 
King's Lynn may be taken as a speci- 
men. But, as might be expected, it is 
in the susceptible parts of the stone- 
work that the foreign influence first shows itself, — not in the 
construction, but in the ornament. The spandrils at Cowdray 
are filled with carving; some of it is foliage, treated in the 
Late Gothic manner, but in two appears the head of a winged 
cherub, clearly not of English but Italian descent. The main 
ribs of the vaulting, too, have an Italian arabesque worked on 
them, and the point to be observed here is that the section 


VAUi.TiNf, Rui TO Pouch 

(CIK. 1540). 


of the rib is not of the usual type, but is expressly designed to 
receive the arabesque (Fig. 13). 

In the Countess of Salisbury's chantry at Christchurch it is 

much easier to 
imagine the 
Italian carver 
following the 
English mason, 
and adding his 
ornament to the 
other's work, for 
nearly all of it lies 
in sunk panels, 
the highest parts 
of the carving 
being on the 
same face as the 
margin : that is 
to say, the Italian 
found plain sur- 
faces between the 
moulded mem- 
bers left for him ' 
to carve, and one 
set of these plain 
surfaces, on the 
side next to the 
choir, he did not 
carve — they still 
remain bare. 
Take away the 
ornament, and 
the chantry in 
general design 
and treatment 
is Late English- 
Gothic (Fig. 14), such as no Italian would have produced, if 
we except the topmost stage on the choir side, where there are 
two domed pinnacles of rather clumsy and unintelligible design 
(Plate v.). One of these has a curious feature — the somewhat 

14. — Chantry of the Countkss of Salisbury, Christchurch, 
Hampshire, from the North Aisle (cir. 1529). 

Pl.ATK V. 




15. — Thk Salishlry Chantrv, Christchlkch. Dktaii. of Carvin( 

16— I'RioR Draper's Chantrv, Christciukc h. Hi ad ni- Doduwav (15^9). 


vulg^ar product of the later Italian carvers — namely, the lower 
drapery and the feet of a figure ascending into clouds, all 
executed in complete relief. On the north side, next the 
aisle, are some shields in the spandrils between the niches 

(Plate VI.), carved 
in the Italian spirit, 
and these can hardly 
have been added 
afterwards, but must 
have been an in- 
tegral part of the 
design. The ara- 
besques on the ver- 
tical shafts and in 
thehorizontal bands 
might very well have 
been carved by a man 
put on for that pur- 
pose only (Fig. 15). 
Altogether, it is diffi- 
cult to adjust with 
any accuracy the 
claims of the English 
and Italian work- 
men; it \\' o u 1 d 
almost seem as 
though they worked 
together, or at any 
rate with a cordial 
understanding be- 
tween them. The 
same may be said of 
the screen to Prior 
Draper's chantry 
(dated 1529) in the 
same church. The 
general design is Gothic, and while the arabesque enrichments 
may have been added afterwards, and the spandrils of the flat- 
pointed door, the same can hardly be said of the corbels to the 
niches over it (Fig. 16), The cresting along the top of this 
screen exactly resembles that over the screens at the sides of 

17. — ChKISTCHUKCH, llAMi'SHlKh. Mlsh.KtKE SeATS. 

Plate VI. 





the choir at Winchester Cathedral, except that the latter has 
not a battlemented finish (Fig. 20). 

Although it is not difficult to imagine an Italian carving this 
stonework at Christchurch, it is not quite so easy to attribute 
the interesting choir-stalls to him or a compatriot, for the 
Gothic feeling is too pronounced, and the angel and cherubs 
are not lissom and 
graceful enough to have 
descended from an 
Italian sky. 

The divisions be- 
tween the miserere 
seats (Fig. 17) are 
thoroughly Gothic in 
general treatment and 
in their mouldings, but 
in the carving the 
Italian hand shows 
itself, although sub- 
dued to the Gothic sur- 
roundings in which it 
worked. Some of the 
desk ends are traceried 
and cusped, and some 
have vases and foliage 
after the Italian man- 
ner. But here again the 
two piitti which turn 
their backs in so uncere- 
monious a way (Fig. i(S) 
can hardly be the work 
of Italian chisels. 

It is equally difficult 
to assign the beautiful panelling in the long gallery at the Vyne 
to a foreigner (I""ig. 19) ; there is so much English feeling about 
it. The work conveys the impression that the carver was more 
at home with his linen panels than with the Italian flourishes 
with which he supplemented them; but the single panel over the 
door is evidently the work of a hand thoroughly familiar with 
the Italian method. We see the same mixed character wherever 
we look ; we can point to no work — not even Henry \ II.'s 

R.A. C 

:8.— Christchurch, Uami'shikk. IJknch-knd in Choir. 



tomb — and say, " This is wholly Italian." There is always a 
stronp^ English feeling, and sometimes it is only a touch here 
and there which shows the foreign influence. 

The same remark applies to the stone screens at the sides of 
the choir at Winchester (Fig. 20). They are Gothic in general 


treatment, but a little Italian carving is introduced in the 
cresting along the top. They were the work of Bishop Fox in 
1525, w'ho evidently had a hankering after the foreign ornament 
in his life, although his own chantry, in which he lies buried, is 
free from it ; for in the neighbouring church at St. Cross are the 
fragments of some very beautiful screens containing charming 



Italian work (Plate VII.). The history of these fragments is not 
known, but from the occurrence in them of the pelican, which 
was Bishop Fox's badge, they seem to be due to him, and they 
may possibly have come from the cathedral itself. They do not 
belong to their present situation, and one of the main posts is 
worked with a return at a very obtuse angle, indicating some 
such polygonal disposition as the east end of the cathedral has. 
On the top of the choir-screens in the cathedral are placed six 
oak chests, called mortuary chests, procured by Fox, in which 

20.— ScuKEN ON North Siuk of Choir, Winchkstku Cathkdrai. (with MoKTUAuy 

Chkst), 1525. 

are deposited the bones of various benefactors. They arc of 
Italian workmanship (except two which replaced the old ones 
in the seventeenth century), and are suggestive as being one 
of the sources of inspiration to native carvers. One of them is 
shown in Fig. 20, and just behind it can be seen the cornice of 
the chantry of Bishop Gardiner, who died in 1555. The portion 
visible is of well-developed classic character, and indicates how 
the use of the foreign forms had progressed during the thirty 
years that had elapsed since Fox's time. I'2ven here, however, 
the pinnacle at the corner — the head of a heraldic animal on a 

c 2 



2I.-CANOFV OF Stalls, Hknkv VI I. 's Chapkl, 

pedestal — shows how the 
designer was unwilHng or 
unable to shake off all the 
trammels of his native 

At Basing Church, in 
Hampshire, there is yet 
another example of the 
same limiteduseof Italian 
detail in the Paulet 
tombs, which are con- 
structed in the thickness 
of the side-walls of the 
chancel (Plate VII.). The 
arches over the tombs and 
the doorway in the wall 
are all flat-pointed, and 
the spandrils are filled 
with Renaissance carving, 
which, in the case of the 
large arches, surrounds 
the arms of the founder. 
Except for these touches, 
and for the cresting along 
the top, which recalls that 
at Winchester, the detail 
is all Gothic. The large 
panel in the wall over 
the doorway seems to be 
of later date. 

Another interesting 
piece of work of this 
period is found in the 
stalls of Henry VII.'s 
chapel at Westminster. 
The canopies (Fig. 21) 
are quite Gothic in cha- 
racter, but of a rather 
florid description, and 
although there is no actual 
Renaissance detail, there 

Plate VII. 

(probably due to bishoi' fox, who died 1528.) 




is a tendency towards it. The caps of the pilasters are also Late 
Gothic, while the columns are of that honeycomb pattern which 
is a sign of change towards the new fashion (Fig. 22). There 

is woodwork of a somewhat 
similar character at Winchester 
in Langton's chapel, and in 
Prior Silkstede's pulpit (1520). 
The Spring pew in Lavenham 
Church, Suffolk, is another 
instance of the late treatment 
of woodwork. There are niches, 
canopies, fan-vaulting, and 
cusped tracery (Fig. 23), but a 
closer inspection shows that the 
tracery has completely departed 
from the simple lines of Gothic 
work, and has assumed fantastic 
forms combined of twisted 
strands and foliage (Fig. 24), 
while the columns are honey- 

22.— Detail from Stalls, Hknry VH.'s COmbcd Or twistcd iuto Spirals. 

Chapkl, Westminster. ,,,, , n , i , 

1 hese examples all tend to 
show that the old tradi- 
tions died hard. The new 
ideas were cautiously ac- 
cepted, and were utilised to 
help the existing methods 
rather than to supplant 
them. Hitherto it has been 
fittings, or chantries, or 
tombs which have furnished 
example s — comparatively 
small and isolated pieces of 
work which naturally lent 
themselves to experiments. 
But we find the same general 
treatment in larger and 
more important efforts; the 
native tradition still holds 
the field, but traces of the ^, -r,,, spk.n.. pkw, i.avknmam ch.kc... 

new manner are to be found si fkolk. 



in the spandril of an archway, the termination of a label, or the 
pendants of a roof. Compare the roof of the hall at Eltham 
Palace (Fig. 25) with that of the great hall at Hampton Court 
(1534—35)- The roof at Eltham is still Gothic, without a 
touch of the Renaissance; the roof at Hampton Court is also 
still Gothic in conception and construction, but in the most 
susceptible parts— the pendants, the spandrils, and the corbels 
— the new influence makes itself felt (Fig. 26). These pendants 

are quite in the new 
style, and yet were 
carved by an Eng- 
lishman, named 
Richard Rydge, of 
London.* The span- 
drils likewise are 
filled with Renais- 
sance ornament, 
carved by Michael 
Joyner, among 
which the King's 
Arms and the 
"King's beasts" 
appear, treated in 
the manner cus- 
tomary in Late 
Gothic work ; the 
Tudor badges are 
also carved on the 
pendants and 
corbels, amid the cherubs and balusters and foliage which go 
to compose the Italian ornament (Fig. 27). 

Another fine piece of woodwork, which was being executed 
contemporaneously with the hall roof at Hampton, was the 
magnificent rood screen in King's College Chapel, Cambridge 
(Plate VHL). There is no record as to who did this work, nor 
w^hen it was done ; but the evidence of the arms, initials, and 
badges upon it, which are those of Henry VHL and Anne 
Boleyn, fixes its date between 1532 and 1536. It has been 
called the finest piece of woodwork this side the Alps, and its 

24. — Detail from the Spring Pew, Lavenham Church, 


* History of Hampton Court Palace, by Ernest Law, Vol. I. 

Plate VIII. 


SCREEN IN THE CIIAI'F.I.. (1532-6). 



exquisite design and workmanship quite justify the description, 
and even incline one to omit the limiting line. It is more 
completely Italian in treatment than any other work of the 
time, and there is very little trace of Gothic influence. All the 
mouldings are classic, whereas in the roof at Hampton Court 
even the Italian pendants have a Gothic feeling in their 
mouldings. There is, however, a considerable similarity in 
feeling between the pendants in both cases, and it should be 
borne in mind that the work at the two places was being 
carried on simultaneously. Richard Rydge, of London, who 

25.— Rook ok Hall, Eltham Palack, Kknt. 

carved the pendants at Hampton Court, may have had a hand 
in the King's College screen ; but it is practically certain that 
the general design and most of the work must have been 
done by Italians, and the whole screen must be regarded as 
an isolated example, complete in itself, not growing out 
of anything that went before it, nor developing into anything 

ytne early work at Hampton Court, that is, the work of 

\y^ Wolsey and Henry VHI., executed between 1514 and 1540, 

is typical of the prevailing maimer. This building was the 

most important one of its time. It was built by the magnificent 

Cardinal as his principal residence, where he could live amid 



26. — Roof of the Great Hall, Hampton Court (1534 — 35). 

quiet and healthy surroundings, and yet be in close touch with 
London, which was the centre of political activity. Wolsey 
lived in more than regal state, and the enormous size and 
extraordinary splendour of his palace is testified to by many 



27.— IJKTAII.S H(0M THK KoOK ok TllK ("iHFAT HaI.I,, HaMITON Coi Kl. 

foreigners (jf distinction who resorted to him on some (jf the 
innumerable matters in which he was the controHinj^^ spirit. 
This great palace he presented to the king some time before 
his fall, and the king altered and enlarged it still further, and 



made it, as was to be expected, one of his chief residences. 
Here, then, we may expect to find the best work that wealth 
and skill could produce ; here we may fairly look for typical 
work of the time. What is the character of the work that was 
being executed between 1514 and 1540 ? In its essentials it is 
Gothic of a late type, with just such touches of Italian detail as 
have been already mentioned. The structure is of dark red brick, 
with stone dressings ; the detail is of the simplest ; the windows 
are generally small, and have flat-pointed heads. Whatever 
elaboration there is, is chiefly confined to central features, 

2S. — Hami'ton Col kt. Head ok Door to Hall. 

such as the gateways on the great axial line. The chimneys 
are of cut and moulded brick ; the archways are vaulted with 
fan tracery vaulting ; the large windows of the hall are traceried 
and cusped ; everything in its main outline is Gothic. But in 
certain parts the ornament is of Renaissance character. There 
are a number of terra-cotta roundels built into the walls, which 
came from Italy, and were made to the Cardinal's order. There 
is a terra-cotta tablet of his arms supported by putti beautifully 
modelled — this was also probably an importation ; it has no 
essential connection with its surroundings. The same may 
also be said of the more roughly modelled panels on either side 
of the doorway to the chapel, which contain the royal arms 


impaling those of Henry's third queen, Jane Seymour, sup- 
ported by very mundane angels. But there is also, in other 
parts of the building, a little Renaissance detail, which is an 
essential part of the design, and could not have been brought 
from elsewhere and built in. Such is the carving in the 
spandrils of doorways (Fig. 28), the pendants of the hall roof, 
and the ceiling decoration of certain rooms. This must all 
have been wrought on the spot, but it forms an extremely small 
part of the whole. While the spandrils of three or four door- 
ways are carved with Renaissance detail, the doorways them- 
selves are in other respects quite Gothic. The hall roof, as 
already said, is Gothic in conception, although much of its 
ornament is of the newer fashion. The same may be said of the 
chapel roof, which is an imitation in oak of some of the stone 
vaulting and pendants of the period. The ceilings will be 
referred to later, but it may here be said that most of them 
are derived from the wood-ribbed ceilings of Late Gothic work, 
and that only in the small room called Wolsey's Closet does 
the design decidedly follow Italian models. It will thus be 
seen that Hampton Court is essentially Gothic in style, and 
that only in its susceptible places has it been affected by the 
foreign fashion. 

What happened at Hampton Court happened elsewhere, 
and in all the examples which have come down to us the 
same thing is to be seen — a Gothic structure with more or less 
of Italian ornament : more in such places as Sutton Court and 
Layer Marney Tower, less at Compton Winyates and Hengrave. 

There was, however, one building, which has not come down 
to us, in which the Italian manner must have been much more 
in evidence, judging by such accounts as we have of the place. 
This was the palace of Nonesuch, in vSurrey. It was built by 
Henry VIII. as a retreat, according to Paul Hentzner, the tutor 
of a young German nobleman who visited England in 1598.* It 
was in "a very healthful situation," lie says, " chosen by King 
Henry VIII. for his pleasure and retirement, and built by him 
with an excess of magnificence and elegance, even to ostenta- 
tion ; one would imagine that everything that architecture 
can perform to have been employed in this one work ; there are 
everywhere so many statues that seem to breathe, so many 

* Ilcntznei's l ravels, ed. by Horace Walpole. 


miracles of consummate art, so many casts that rival even the 
perfection of Roman antiquity, that it may well claim and 
justify its name of Nonesuch." The site was acquired by the 
king in 1538,* and as he died in 1547, he must have begun to 
build almost immediately. According to a statement in Braun's 
Civitatcs (1582), he " procured many excellent artificers, archi- 
tects, sculptors, and statuaries, as well Italians, French, and 
Dutch as natives, who all applied to the ornament of this 
mansion the finest and most curious skill they possessed in 
these several arts, embellishing it within and without with 
many magnificent statues, some of which vividly represent the 
antiquities of Rome, and some surpass them."t About eight 
years after Henry's death the house was alienated from the 
Crown to the Earl of Arundel, and was thereby saved from 
the destruction contemplated by Queen Mary, who found it too 
costly to finish. The Earl, however, "for the love and honour 
he bare to his old master," completed the building and left it to 
his son-in-law. Lord Lumley, who added a second court. In 
1591 it again came into possession of the Crown, and so con- 
tinued until it was presented by Charles II. to his favourite, 
Barbara, Countess of Castlemaine, who pulled it down to help 
towards paying her debts. A few years before this happened 
Evelyn notes in his diary under date 3rd January, 1666 : " I 
supp'd in None-such House, whither the office of the Exchequer 
was transferr'd during the plague, at my good friend's Mr. 
Packer's, and tooke an exact view of the plaster statues and 
bass relievos inserted 'tvvixt the timbers and punchions of the 
outside walles of the Court ; which must needs have ben the 
work of some celebrated Italian. I much admir'd how it had 
lasted so well and intire since the time of Hen. VIII., expos'd 
as they are to the aire ; and pitty it is they are not taken out 
and preserv'd in some drie place ; a gallerie would become 
them. There are some mezzo-relievos as big as the life, the 
storie is of the Heathen Gods, emblems, compartments, etc. 
The Palace consists of two courts, of which the first is of stone, 
castle-like, by the Lo. Lumlies (of whom 'twas purchas'd), the 
other of timber, a Gotic fabric, but these walls incomparably 
beautified. I observ'd that the appearing timber punchions, 

* Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1837. 

t Anhaologia, Vol. XXXIX., p. 32. Toto del Nun^iata was probably one of 
the Italians. 


entrelices, &c., were all so cover'd with scales of slate, that it 
seem'd carv'd in the wood and painted, the slate fastened on 
the timber in pretty figures, that has, like a coate of armour, 
preserv'd it from rotting." Some two and a half years 
before this visit of Evelyn's, his lively contemporary, Mr. 
Pepys, had gone through the park to the house and, as he 
says, "there viewed as much as we could of the outside, and 
looked through the great gates, and found a noble court." In 
September, 1665, he was again there, and while waiting about 
he examined the house, which was, he says, " on the outside 
filled with figures of stories, and good painting of Rubens' or 
Holben's doing. And one great thing is, that most of the house 
is covered, I mean the post and quarters in the walls, with lead, 
and gilded." 

Of all this beautiful work nothing has survived, except a 
painted panel or two preserved at Loseley, in Surrey, and 
possibly other fragments in other houses of the district. 
According to a statement of John Aubrey, the antiquary, some 
of the materials of Nonesuch went to the building of The 
Durdans near Epsom. Evelyn calls it a Gothic building, and 
we shall probably not be far wrong in placing it in the same 
category as other buildings of the time — English in conception, 
but adorned with foreign ornament, which in this case was of 
greater extent and better workmanship than that on any other 
contemporary house. It seems clear, however, that the work, 
important as it was, did not have any permanent effect upon 
English architecture. It was the culmination of the Italian 
movement prevalent throughout Henry VHI.'s reign ; after his 
death, and before the newness of Nonesuch had worn off, the 
Italian influence gave way to the Dutch. Nonesuch was a 
large building, especially after Lord Lumley had added the 
second court; but it would seem that Henry VIII. actually 
built but one court, measuring 116 feet long by 137 feet wide.* 
Hampton Court had Unw large courts besides half-a-dozen 
smaller ones; the largest or Base Court, measuriug 167 feet by 
142 feet, still remains; so also do the Clock Court, measuring 
160 feet by 91 feet, and the Chapel Court ; the fourth, measuring 
116 feet by 108 feet, has given way to Wren's buildings. 
Hampton Court, therefore, stood without a rival in point of 

* Anliwologia, Vol. V., p. 429. 



size, but Nonesuch was more magnificently decorated, and we 
can but echo Evelyn's lament that the beautiful panels were 
"not taken out and preserv'd in some drie place." 

Just about the time that Nonesuch was being built, Lacock 
Abbey in Wiltshire was being converted into a residence by 
William Sharington, who had bought it on the dissolution of 
the monasteries. He was lord of the manor in 1540, and he 

died in 1553,* so 
that all the work 
which he did 
must be com- 
prised between 
those dates. One 
important part 
of his work is 
the octagonal 
tower at the 
south-east corner 
of the house 
(Fig. 29). The 
detail of the 
stonework is 
simple, and, ex- 
cept for certain 
brackets, does 
not show much 
foreign influence, 
but in the tower 
are two stone 
tables (Figs. 30 
and 31) , evi- 
dently made for 
their situation, which strongly display the new spirit. That 
one of them was expressly made for William Sharington is 
proved by his initials and crest being part of its ornamenta- 
tion ; and as a skilful mason named Chapman was working 
on the new buildings, it is just possible that he may have 
carved one or both of these tables. It is the table on the 
middle floor which has its base ornamented with Sharington's 

29. — Lacock Ahbky, Wiltshire. Tower at South-East 
Corner (between 1540 and 1553). 

* " Notes on Lacock Abbey." by C. H. Talbot, Wilts. Archaolog. and Nat. Hist. 
Mag. Vol. XXVI. 



initials and crest ; from this base rises a central pillar, against 
Vv^hich squat four figures of satyrs carrying baskets of fruit and 
foliage upon which rests the table-top. The satyrs have that 
curious resemblance about their heads to North American 
Indians which characterises a number of such figures carved 
during the latter half of the sixteenth century. The second 

30. — Lacock Aiiiitv, Wii.rsHiKK. Sionk Tahi.k in Towku. 

table (on the top floor) has nothing about it directly con- 
necting it with Sharington. It was evidently intended for a 
banqueting house, as it is adorned with figures of Apicius, the 
first authority on the pleasures of the table, Ceres, Hacciius, and 
an unnamed personage of the same hierarchy. 

Sharington's work is of considerable interest, and includes, 
in addition to minor matters such as a chimney-piece, 
chimney-stacks, and panelling, a fine range of staltling 



(Fig. 32), of which the detail is tolerably simple, and of a 
character closely resembling that which prevailed twenty 
years later, although here and there, in a chimney or a 
bracket, we get a touch more in keeping with what is usually 
associated with Sharington's own time. In addition to the 
Renaissance work in the tables there is some tile paving 
(Plate IX.) which displays, amid the foliage, the vases and 
the dolphins that form the staple of Italian ornament, the 

31. — Lacock Abbey, \Vii,tshirk. Stone Table in Tower. 

initials of Sharington and his third wife, Grace, his arms (gu., 
between two flaunches chequ}- arg. and az., two crosses formee, 
in pale), and his crest, a scorpion. As Sir William Sharington 
died in 1553, and it was during the life of his third wife that 
these tiles were made, they may fairly be dated about 1550. 

With the close of the first half of the century we come to the 
end of pronounced Italian detail such as pervades the tiles at 
Lacock, and characterises other isolated features in different 
parts of the country. The nature of the detail in the second 

Plate IX. 





half of the century is different ; it no longer comprises the 

dainty cherubs, the elegant balusters, vases and candelabra, 

the buoyant dolphins, and delicately modelled foliage which 

are associated with Italian and French Renaissance work, but 

it indulges freely 

in strap work, 

curled and inter- 
laced, in fruit 

and foliage, in 

cartouches, and 

in caryatides, half 

human beings, 

half pedestals, 

such as were the 

delight of the 

Dutchman of the 

time. But the ex- 
treme heaviness 

of the Dutch work 

was lightened in 

its passage across 

the water, and the 

English workmen 

seem to have im- 
proved upon their 

later models as 

much as they fell 

short of their 

earlier. There is 

a fine carved and 

inlaid c h e st in 

St. Mary Overie, 

South wark, which 

shows this change 

in detail! Plate X.), 

but it is treated with more restraint than the woodwork of 

later years. It was the gift of Hugh Offley, and bears his 

initials and marks, as well as his arms and those of his wife's 

family : he was Lord Mayor in 1556, and is not unlikely to 

have given the chest in that year. 

In addition to the change in the character of the detail, we 
K.A. D 

-Lacock Ahhky, Wii.tshikk. Thic Stahi.ks-; (hktwkkn 

1540 AM) 1553). 



find a classic rendering of strings and cornices more prevalent ; 
doorways became frequently round-headed instead of flat- 
pointed, windows became square-headed, and all accessories 
parted with what remains of Gothic character they may have 
possessed in favour of a classic treatment. But the general 
body of a building was less susceptible of change than were its 
particular features, and how the general body of such buildings 
as houses developed will be seen in the next chapter. 

32A. — From the Sedilia, Wymondham 
Church, Norfolk. 



About 1450 to 1635. 

Note. — The plans are drawn to a uniform scale of 50 feet to the inch. 

The principal buildings erected during the sixteenth and 
early seventeenth centuries were houses, and it is mainly in 
connection with domestic architecture that we must seek to 
trace the development of the new style. There were but few 
churches built after the dissolution of the monasteries, and 
we have no examples of sufficient importance to show how 
ecclesiastical architecture would have been affected. There are 
chapels, chantries, and fittings, such as screens, pews, pulpits, 
and fonts, but nothing on a large scale. We have already seen 
how such comparatively small and isolated features were affected. 
It is necessary, therefore, to look to the numerous houses that 
were built in order to see what progress the new ideas made. 

The character of a house is largely determined by its plan, 
and the plan is the expression of the wants and habits of the 
inmates. Accordingly we find that the wants and habits of 
English people, being far less susceptible of change than their 
taste in ornament and decoration, caused the plan of their 
houses to follow the old lines long after the superficial decora- 
tion had taken on itself the foreign fashion. The one quality 
which the Italian influence gradually introduced into the plan 
was symmetry, and this could be obtained without sacrificing the 
arrangements which seemed essential to English habits. In 
later days an Italian feature, the open loggia, was often made 
use of in the form of an arcade, but even this had its English 
precedent in the cloisters of the monks. 

What were the essential points about the plan of an English 
house ? The most important place was the hall, which was 
the nucleus of the whole series of apartments. Then there 
was the kitchen with its adjuncts ; and there were the private 
apartments for the family, of which the chief was the 
" parlour." The arrangement which naturally established 

D 2 


itself was that the kitchen should be located at one end of the 
hall and the parlour at the other. This relation of rooms had 
existed from a very early period, and it is in the developing of 
this idea with more or less elaboration and skill that house- 
planning consisted down to the time of Inigo Jones, when the 
hall gradually ceased to be the centre of household life, and 
became merely an entrance. 

To the central group of hall, kitchen and parlour were added 
what other rooms were required for convenience or defence ; 
but in regard to the latter, precautions against attack had 
already become less necessary in Henry VIII.'s time, and they 
were practically disregarded in Elizabeth's, when considerations 
of stateliness and display chiefly influenced the design, at any 
rate as far as the larger houses were concerned. 

Nothing will help to show how the central idea of an English 
house developed, while tenaciously adhering to its essence, so 
much as a comparison of the plans of a number of houses built 
during the sixteenth century and the early part of the seven- 
teenth. But in order to bring them into relation with what 
preceded them, the series commences with the plans of two 
houses that were built in the fifteenth century, before there 
was a trace of Italian influence to be found in English work. 
All the plans are those of fair-sized houses, chiefly of the manor- 
house class, and they are from examples scattered up and down 
the country ; therefore whatever characteristics they possess 
may be taken to have been of fairly wide distribution. 

The first example is Great Chalfield, in Wiltshire (Fig. ^^), 
where the work is all of good Perpendicular character. The 
house was built towards the end of the reign of Henry VI., at 
a time when precautions against attack were still necessary ; 
it was therefore surrounded by a moat. Much of the work has 
disappeared, and alterations have been made in what is left, 
but the arrangement of the hall is still plain, although the 
kitchen is not recognisable. The almost invariable disposition 
of the hall was as follows : it was an oblong apartment with 
one end cut off by a screen, which formed the entrance passage 
called "the screens." From this passage the hall was entered 
on one side, while from the other side access was obtained to the 
kitchen, the buttery, the pantry, and the rest of the servants' 
department. This arrangement may still be seen in use at 
many of the colleges in Oxford and Cambridge. The hall 



itself was usually lighted from both sides, and was a lofty apart- 
ment with an open roof, that is, with all the timbers showing. 
The effect of this disposition was that the hall divided the 
house into two separate portions ; there was no thoroughfare 
above it or around it, but only through it. At the end oppo- 
site to the screens was the dais, a platform raised some few 
inches above 
the general floor 
level, where the 
family sat at 
meals, in the 
same way as 
the dons sit in 
many colleges 
at the present 
day. The dais 
was usually 
lighted by a bay 
window, which 
formed a con- 
venient recess 
for a serving 
table. There ^MyRCH 
are still a few 
houses where 
the dais sur- 
vives, but in 
most cases it has 
been cleared 
away and the 
floor has been 
lowered to the 
general level. 
That it was of 

universal adoption is proved by its being shown on practically 
all contemporary plans. The fireplace was placed in one of 
the side walls, and was generally somewhat nearer to the dais 
end than the other. It obviously could not be placed at the 
screen end, because the screen itself did not go up to the roof, 
but was covered by a gallery, usually known as the minstrels' 
gallery, though it may be doubted whether in many instances it 

33.^Gkkat Chali-ikli), Wiltshikk. 
(tkmp. Hknry VI.). 



was used by the votaries of the gate science. Nor could the fire- 
place be conveniently set in the end wall on the dais, since it 
would have interfered with the table ; it was necessarily placed 
therefore in one of the side walls. 

These features, then, may be looked for in every hall of the 
time — the screen, the dais, the bay window, and the fireplace — 

34.— OxBURGH Hai.l, Norfolk. Grolnd Plan (1482). 

and in some cases a good deal of ingenuity was displayed in 
contriving to obtain them in their due relation to each other. 

From the dais end of the hall access was obtained to the 
family apartments, which were Tew in number at first, but 
gradually increased with the ever-growing desire for comfort 
and refinement. 



At Great Chalfield the hall conforms to the disposi- 
tions detailed above, but the bay windows serve rather as 
means of communication with other rooms than merely as 

At Oxburgh Hall, in Norfolk (1482), we have another type of 

35. — Oxiu;i<(;ti Hai,i„ Nokkolk. ICntkanck Toukk (i4,H.'). 

defensive house (Fig. 34). It was built round a court, as well 
as being surrounded by a moat. The entrance was through a 
lofty tower into the court, on the opposite side of which was 
the hall of the usual type. The kitchen was to the right on 
entering, in the extreme south-west corner of the building — not 
exactly the aspect we should choose in the present day. So 



many changes have been made in the use to which the rooms 
in these old houses have been put, and in the way of approach- 
ing them, that too much stress must not be laid upon the 
details of the plan, but the relation of the hall and kitchen 
at Oxburgh must have been always the same. The rest of 
the building is made up of small rooms surrounding the court, 
not arranged on any elaborate plan, but put to whatever use 
was required. It will be seen that although there is a con- 
siderable amount of uniformity in the arrangement of Oxburgh 
Hall, there is no strict symmetry. The entrance tower is in 

C O U R T.' 

36. — East Barsham, Norfolk. Ground Plan (cir. 1500 — 15). 

the centre of the front, but the windows on either side of it do 
not tally with each other. The entrance to the hall is not on 
the axial line of the tower, nor is the setting of the windows 
and doors in the court by any means regular. As we advance 
in time, we shall find that all these points were very carefully 
attended to, especialK- towards the end of the sixteenth century. 
The plan here illustrated was made in 1774, and a few years 
subsequently the south side of the court, containing the hall 
and kitchen, was pulled down. Other alterations have been 
made since then, but there is still much of the original work 
left. The great entrance tower (Fig. 35) shows still a certain 
hankering after defensive features ; there is a curtain arch 


>— I IX) 


2 -J 


thrown across between the turrets, from behind which missiles 
could be hurled upon unwelcome visitors, and the openings in 
the turrets are of the smallest. The windows generally are of 
few lights, the heads are pointed and cusped, the parapets are 
corbelled out and battlemented, and the whole work is of Late 
Gothic character without any trace of the new style in its 

At East Barsham (about 1500 — 15) we get indications of the 
new style in the treatment of parts of the ornament. The 
general feeling, however, is still Gothic. There is not much of 
the plan to be made out, but what there is shows a large 
entrance tower, with the porch of the hall exactly opposite to 
it (Fig. 36). The hall has a bay window at the dais end, and, 
contrary to custom, a fireplace in the end wall. The kitchen 
is to the right on entering, and is approached by a passage 
from the middle of the screens. The whole arrangement 
is in the main of the usual type, so far as it can be traced. 
The new feeling is indicated in one or two panels which bear a 
head, but most of the ornament is still of the Gothic type with 
cuspings, etc. At the neighbouring parsonage of Great Snoring, 
which resembles East Barsham in general treatment, some of 
the ornament is more decidedly Italian, with the characteristic 
balusters and foliage. 

Compton Winyates, in Warwickshire (about 1520), is a very 
complete and charming example of its period. The plan con- 
forms in its main features to the ordinary type (Fig. 2)7)- A 
certain amount of regularity is imparted to it by reason of its 
being built round a rectangular court, but of syninietr\- in it 
there is hardly a trace, and there is still less in the grouping of 
the structure. I*3ver}thing is as irregular and picturesfjue as 
the most romantic could desire ; the mixture of materials — 
stone, brick, wood, and plaster — lends a delightful variety of 
texture, tone, and coU^ur, and makes the house, next to Haddon, 
one of the most alluring in the coimtry (Plate XI.). I^ut our 
concern at present is more particularly with the plan. This 
shows a courtyard entered through a gateway which is opposite, 
though not exactly opposite, to the door of the screens. On 
the left of the screens are the buttery, the kitchen passage, and 
a staircase; on the right, of course, the hall, from the upper 
end of which access is obtained to the famil}- rooms, the chapel, 
and — what previous plans have not shown — the grand staircase. 



Of course, with the lofty hall cutting the building in two 
halves, at least two staircases were necessary to get to the 
upper rooms ; as a matter of fact there were usually more than 
two, as there are here : difficulties of planning being often 
removed, or at any rate lessened, by this rather costly expedient. 
It will be seen that the hall has a range of rooms at the back of 
it, and that its two side walls are not, as usual, both external. 
The sides of the court are formed, as they were at Oxburgh, of 
a number of small rooms, which originally (in all probability) 


led into one another, the passage being a later addition. The 
ornament, in which the house abounds, is all of Late Gothic 
character (Plate XII.). There is no actual Renaissance detail 
in the external work, although much of it looks as though it 
were quite ready for the change. 

So far, although we have come to nearly the close of the 
first quarter of the century, we have seen but little effect from 
the new style. Just a suggestion in the ornament at East 
Barsham, and a slight tendency towards a symmetrical treat- 
ment of the plan ; yet whatever symmetry there may have 
been at East Barsham was thrown to the winds at Compton 

Plate XII. 



r— t-- 

-^^ r — ' |1 



^^-it^ . •ijlT 

• -IE 



(ft^ 5cp. iflag. 





Winyates. In the next example, Sutton Place, near Guildford, 
only a few years later in date (1523 — 25),* we find symmetry in 
plan and elevation, and ornament which is strongly marked 
with Italian character. The entrance was as usual through 
a tower, and faced the hall door exactly opposite, on the axial 
line (Fig. 38). Such accuracy of alignment was so infrequent 
at this date, and it results in the hall door being placed so far 

38. — Sl.TTON Fl.ACK, NKAK GuiLDFOKI). GUOINI) Pl.AN (l52j — 25). 

from the end wall where the screens ought to be, that a feeling 
of doubt creeps in as to whether we see here the original 
arrangement unaltered. The hall, too, is of such a height as 
to embrace two tiers of windows, another most unusual treat- 
ment. In the ordinary way the windcnvs w(juld have been 
made lofty in proportion to the hall. If the existing dispositions 
have come down unaltered, they are a striking testimony to the 
manner in which routine of design was broken in order to 

• Annuls of an Old Manor House, by Frederic Harrison. 







39. — Sutton Place, Surrkv. Dktails (1523 — 25). 

obtain external symmetry. Apart from this point, the plan 
adheres to the usual lines. The hall connects the two wings, and 
the sides of the court are formed by a series of small chambers 
approached either through each other or from the outer air. 
The internal walls have either been removed or altered, but the 
external walls remain to show that the wings enclosing the court 



were only one room 
thick, and not of 
sufficient width to 
allow of a corridor. 

There is, how- 
ever, an important 
point to be noticed, 
and that is the sym- 
metrical treatment 
of the court. Not 
only is there a little 
bay window half- 
way along each 
side, but the bay 
window of the hall, 
which comes in the 
angle of the court, 
is balanced by 
another bay in 
the other angle, 
although there is 
no important room 
to be lighted by it. 
Such an arrange- 
ment was often 
adopted in subse- 
quent plans, but 
this is the first 
instance which we 
have seen of it. 

While the plan 
adheres in the main 
to the customary 
lines, the ornamen- 
tation has taken 
quite a new depar- 
ture. The windows 
are of Perpendi- 
cular type, and 
have the old-fashioned cusping in the heads, but the hollow of 
the moulding is occupied with ornament drawn from Italian, or 

40. — Sutton Plack, Scrrky. Part I';:r,K\ATioN ok 

C0LRTVAKI)(l523— 25). 


perhaps Franco-Italian, sources (Fig. 39). The house was built 
by Sir Richard Weston, and, in accordance with the custom of 
the preceding half century, his rebus, or an attempt at it in the 
shape of a tun, appears as a diaper in various places and in the 
horizontal string-course ; but instead of being shrouded in vine 
leaves or other old and well-established devices, it occurs among 
ornament of the new type. This is a point worth noticing, inas- 
much as it shows that this ornament was made for the place, 
and was not purchased out of ready-made stock. The amorini 
which are introduced over the doors have not the same individu- 
ality, nor have the half-balusters which divide them into their 
panels, but they were no doubt made by the same men who did 
the tuns and Sir Richard's initials, which also help to form a 
diaper in places. All this ornamental work is in terra-cotta, but 
there is nothing to show where the patterns were cast, whether 
in England or abroad. The battlemented parapet is not yet dis- 
carded (Fig. 40), and the large octagonal shafts are crowned 
with a variation of the dome. Some of the panels are Gothic 
quatrefoils, and in the parapet of the central block over the front 
door the Italian amorini disport themselves (a little clumsily) 
in panels with Gothic cusping. The whole of the ornament 
is a curious and interesting mixture of the old and new forms. 

Another house with many of the same characteristics is 
Layer Marney Tower, in Essex (1500 — 25). There is not 
enough left of the plan to enable us to draw any deductions 
from it, but the character of the work is very similar to that 
at Sutton, only a little more pronounced in its Renaissance 
feeling. The lofty entrance tower recalls that at Oxburgh ; 
its general appearance, its pointed doorway and windows with 
their mouldings, and also the cusped panels of its string- 
courses are all distinctly Gothic (Fig. 41). But closely asso- 
ciated with the Gothic panelling is the classic e^g and dart 
enrichment. The large mullioned windows, though of Gothic 
descent, are Renaissance in detail, while the parapets, with their 
egg and dart strings, and their dolphins climbing over semi- 
circular panels filled with radiating ornament, are thoroughly 
Renaissance of the French type (Plate XIII.). In the moulded 
chimneys we go back to the ordinary patterns in vogue in 
nearly all houses of the time, whether touched with the foreign 
influence or not. The decorative detail here, as at Sutton 
Place, is in terra-cotta. 


WIMOO*^ JA/11 




t ■ ■ . f 

•Caifr * J><*ait» 

K <ni:y tower, i:ssi:x. 



Both these houses were built by men who had spent some 
time in France. Sir Richard Weston was there more than 
once, and was among those who were present at the Field of 

41.— I.AYKR MaKNKV, lisSKX. KnTKANCE ToWKR (15OO — 25). 

the Cloth of Gold. Sir Henry Marney, who built Layer 
Marney Tower, was one of those attending upon Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, when he took a great army to 
France in 1522.* But whether they took advantage of these 

* " Architectural Notes on Layer Marney Hall, Essex," by C. Forster Hayward. 
Trans. Essex Anfupolog. Soc. Vol. III. pt. i. 



journeys to bring back French or Italian workmen with them 
is not known. Unfortunately there is no documentary evidence 
to produce, and any opinion that may be formed can only be 
speculative. One thing is clear ; namely, that no school was 
established over here of men working in the new style. The 
instances of its use are too few and isolated for that. 

At Hengrave Hall, in Suffolk (1538), the main dispositions 
conform to the usual type, but without any attempt at exact 


42.— Hknorave Hall, Suffolk. Ground Plan (1538). 

symmetry (Fig. 42). The entrance leads into a court, round 
which a corridor is taken. This feature adds much to the 
comfort and convenience of the house, but it is a refinement in 
planning which was very seldom introduced. On the opposite 
side from the entrance is the hall, with the old position of the 
screens still preserved ; to the right of the screens lies the 
kitchen wing. There is the usual bay window at the dais end 
of the hall, and the family apartments are on the left. Owing 
to alterations the minutiae of the original plan cannot now be 
traced ; the general disposition alone can be recognised. The 


accompanying plan is from one made in 1775, since which time 
the whole of the kitchen wing has been pulled down and other 
alterations have been made. The general disposition shown on 
it may be taken as being like the original, and we see that the 
entrance is not in the middle of the side of the court, and that 
in order to obtain a symmetrical fa9ade a wing was carried out 
to the right, whereby the entrance comes nearly in the centre, 
though not quite, and is balanced on either hand by projecting 
turrets corresponding one with the other. 

The house was originally moated, and beyond the moat was 
an outer court, surrounded by low buildings, used as offices and 

43.— Hkngkavk Hall, Suffolk. Wkst Front (1538). 

Stables. It was entered through a gateway or lodge, where the 
keepers and falconers had their quarters. The general treat- 
ment of the architecture still follows the old lines (l^ig. 43). 
The windows, as a rule, have few lights, they have flat- 
pointed heads, and their total area is relatively small in propor- 
tion to the plain surface of brick wall. The chimneys are of cut 
and moulded brickwork of the prevailing type; the turrets are 
crowned with a dome-like finish, similar to that which had been 
used at Henry VH.'s chapel thirty years before. The parapets 
are battlemented, and the strings are narrow and not of classic 
profile. In the entrance gateway we find the new note struck 
(Plate XIV.). The archway is Perpendicular in character, but 
above it is a triple bay window, supported on corbelling, full of 
K.A. fi. 



Renaissance detail, while amorini in Roman armour carry long 
scrolls in their hands, and serve as supporters to a shield of 
arms (Fig. 44). The whole of the corbelling terminates at the 
bottom in a foliated pendant. This inextricable mixture of 
the old-fashioned Perpendicular detail with the new-fashioned 
Renaissance ornament is quite characteristic of the period, and 
shows that the masons, while clinging to the style with which 
they had been familiar since their youth, were endeavouring to 
make closer acquaintance with the foreign forms so much in 
demand. The names of the masons who did this work are on 

record : they were John Eastawe 
and John Sparke, evidently 

Of the houses so far mentioned, 
Oxburgh Hall, East Barsham, Sutton 
Place, Layer Marney, and Hengrave 
are all built of brick. On the other 
side of the country, and in a house 
constructed of entirely different 
materials, we get — at Moreton Old 
Hall in Cheshire (1559) — the same 
kind of plan with which we have now 
become familiar (Fig. 45), This 
house is of timber and plaster, as 
many of the old houses in that district 
are. It is surrounded by a moat, 
and has — at any rate on the ground 
floor — but few windows looking out 
over the country ; they face into the court where possible. 
The relative positions of the hall, the kitchen, and the private 
apartments are here more clearly discernible than in some of 
the preceding plans, inasmuch as the family rooms have under- 
gone but little serious alteration. The proximity of the two 
large bays of the hall and parlour is curious, and was the factor 
which caused the hall bay to be placed so far away from the 
dais end. 

The observations of contemporary writers are of much value 
when considering subjects of historical interest. It is therefore 
worth while to reproduce the advice of a certain Andrew Boorde, 

44.— Hengrave Hali-, Suffolk. 

Corbelling of Bay Window over 

Entrance Archway. 

* Hist, and Antiq. of Hengrave, by John Gage. 

Plate XIV. 





Doctor of Physicke, in regard to the arrangements of a house, 
which he offers in the fourth chapter of his Compendyous 
Regvment, or a Dyetary of Helth, pubHshed in 1542. In 
this chapter he proceeds to " shevve under what maner and 
fasshon a man shulde buylde his howse or mansyon in exchewyng 
thynges the whiche shulde shorten the lyfe of man." He dwells 
upon the necessity of a good soil and good prospect, which 
latter advice was frequently neglected, a great number of houses 
in those times being built in a 
hole. The air, he says, must 
be pure, frisky, and clean, the 
foundations on gravel mixed 
with clay, or else on rock or 
on a hill. The chief prospects 
are to be east and west, espe- 
cially north-east, south-east, 
and south-west ; never south, 
for the south wind "doth cor- 
rupte and doth make evyll 
vapoures." He holds it better 
that the windows shoum open 
plain north than plain south, 
in spite, he says, of Jeremiah's 
saying that " from the north 
dependeth all evil." 

He then enters upon parti- 
culars of the plan, and it will 
be observed how exactly his 
suggestions, so far as they go, 
agree with the plans we are 
examining. '* Make the hall," 

he says, "under such a fashion that the parlour be annexed to 
the head of the hall, and the buttery and pantry be at the lower 
end of the hall ; the cellar under the pantry, set somewhat abase 
from the buttery and pantry, coming with an entry by the wall of 
the buttery ; the pastry-house and the larder-house annexed to the 
kitchen. Then divide the lodgings by the circuit of the quad- 
rivial court, and let the gatehouse be opposite or against the 
hall door (not directly), but the hall door standing abase, and 
the gatehouse in the middle of the front entering into the place. 
Let the privy chamber be annexed to the great chamber of 

E 2 

MoHKTON Oi.i) Hall, Chkshirk. 
Plan (1559). 


estate, with other chambers necessary for the building, so that 
many of the chambers may have a prospect into the chapel." 
The necessity for these particular arrangements, so far as health 
is concerned, does not seem quite obvious, especially the direc- 
tions not to have the hall door exactly opposite to the entrance 
gateway ; and it may be supposed that this particular passage in 
his treatise was suggested by what he had frequently seen rather 
than by what science led him to prescribe. When he goes on 
to dwell upon the necessity for removing " fylth," he was 
probably taking a more original attitude, as also when he 
recommended the stables, slaughter-house, and dairy to be kept 
a quarter of a mile away from the house. The bakehouse and 
brewhouse should also be isolated, he thinks ; but in all these 
respects his advice was not universally followed, for the whole of 
these particular places are to be found attached to the house on 
one or other of contemporary house plans. His next advice is 
applicable to Moreton Old Hall. " When all the mansion is 
edified and built, if there be a moat made about it, there should 
be some fresh spring come to it, and divers times the moat 
ought to be scoured and kept clean from mud and weeds. And 
in no wise let not the filth of the kitchen descend into the 
moat." Most of Dr. Andrew Boorde's advice is practical and 
to the point, and he is not so much in bondage to ancient 
authorities as many of his contemporaries were, in spite of his 
reference to Jeremiah, The rest of his chapter refers to the 
gardens and other surroundings of the house, which need not 
now be dealt with. 

The prevailing treatment of the ornament at Moreton is still 
Gothic (Plates XV., XVI.), in spite of its date being beyond the 
middle of the century. Nevertheless the influence of the new 
style is seen here and there, especially in the carved pendants 
of the overhanging work. The fine bay windows were made, 
as an inscription tells us, by Richard Dale, carpenter, in 1559^ 
a further testimony to the fact that it was English workmen who 
did most of the work of the time, even when it shows signs of 
foreign ornament. Although the bulk of the house was built 
in 1559, considerable alterations were made nearly half a century 
later, in 1602 ; and to this date may be assigned the long gallery, 
with its continuous row of mullioned windows reaching from 
end to end almost without a break. The effect is very quaint, 
but the room must alwavs have been uncomfortable, whether 

Plate XV. 

f r i' ■? f f f f f r r r y A 



Plate XVI. 

t 'ttfit't' 




in summer by reason of the heat, or in winter by reason of the 
cold ; and as a comment upon the effect of time on the stability 
of these timber houses, nothing can be more striking than an 
attempt to walk quickly down the seventy feet of billowy floor 
which the gallery presents. 

With our next plan we enter upon the Elizabethan era, an 
era marked by an extraordinary amount of house-building, which 
led to a great degree of attention being bestowed upon the 
planning. This attention, it is true, does not seem to have been 
directed so much towards comfort or economy as towards mag- 
nificence and display. No doubt comfort of a kind was aimed 
at, but people did not then require comfort as we understand 
it, and designers were not likely to be much in advance of their 
clients. The sacrifices of common sense to architectural effect 
were nevertheless few. The relative positions of the principal 
apartments were settled by considerations of convenience, not 
of external grouping. The kitchens, for instance, were always 
fairly in touch with the hall, not, as in later days, when Palladian 
architecture was in vogue, located some hundreds of feet away 
in a detached wing, connected by a curved colonnade, and 
balanced on the other extremit}' by the stables or the remainder 
of the servants' rooms, in a similar wing. Nor were the servants' 
bedrooms hidden away in the roof with windows looking out on 
to the back of a solid pediment, or even looking inwards and 
only lighted by borrowed light. It was the architects of a more 
strict Italian school who were reduced to such expedients in the 
early part of the eighteenth century ; but in the late sixteenth 
the prevalent style was sufficiently elastic to enable the dictates 
of common sense to be obeyed. No doubt bay windows were 
placed in useless situations in order to balance others that 
were useful. Lofty windows were sometimes divided by floors 
half-way up their height in order that the uniformity of the 
front should not be interrupted ; but the rooms themselves were 
cheerful enough and had good prospects. The features which 
the Elizabethan designer had to marshal were smaller and more 
manageable than those which fell to the lot of his successor in 
the days of Anne and the Georges ; and this was particularly 
the case with his windows. In a mullioned window an additional 
row of lights in the width, or even the height, can be managed 
without attracting undue attention, but the sash window has to 
conform to the size and situation of its brethren. 

6o incrp:ase of symmetry. 

Economy of planning, in the sense of avoiding waste spaces, 
or saving the footsteps of the inmates, was not much studied. 
The only evidence we have of its consideration lies in the occa- 
sional lopping off of extravagant features, or the substitution of 
a reduced set of plans for one of more extensive area. 

The real aim of the designers seems to have been magnificence 
and display — sometimes on a large scale, sometimes on a small. 
The principal means used for this end was symmetry — not so 
much a symmetry of detail as a symmetry of parts, of large 
features rather than of small. We shall find this quality in 
almost every kind of plan, and an extremely valuable quality 
it is if not carried to excess. The symmetry of the Elizabethans 
was generally under control. It was sometimes wasteful and 
its results were occasionally amusing, but they were never 
ridiculous or fatal to the comfort of the house. 

Up to the present the plans we have examined have not — 
with the exception of Sutton Place — shown any determined 
attempt at a symmetrical treatment, only a certain hankering 
after it. With Kirby Hall (1570 — 75) we get a more resolute 
effort in this direction (Fig. 46). The entrance gateway 
and the screens are on an axial line running through the 
house and its green court. The inner court is quite sym- 
metrically treated, door answering to door, and window to 
window ; but the exterior fa9ades were left to take care of 
themselves, and no attempt was made to balance one mass 
by another. 

The symmetry of plan was carried out in the elevations too, 
at least so far as the courtyard is concerned. The south side, 
in which the projecting porch stands, is quite symmetrical, the 
great windows of the hall on the right being exactly balanced 
by similar windows on the left (Plate XVII.). The hall reaches 
from floor to roof, but the left wing had two storeys, and the 
floor of the upper one occupied one row of the glazed lights. 
This expedient cannot be justified on the principle of causing 
the exterior treatment to indicate the internal arrangement ; 
but it can hardly be denied that the general effect would be 
marred were the left-hand windows divided into two tiers. 
The door below the windows to the left is a later insertion. A 
curious fact about this front is that the two outside gables, 
which contain much delicate detail, are partly blocked by the 
roofs of the side wings, which abut against them ; yet it is quite 


certain, from the character of the detail, and from the badges 

46. — KiKDY Hai.i., Northami'tonshikk. Gkound Plan (1570 — 75). 

which are used as ornaments in the wings, that the whole court 
was built at the same time, ends and sides, and it is equally 


certain that the whole building operations were comprised 
within the five years 1570 to 1575. 

Although no attempt seems to have been actually made to 
carry symmetry of treatment into the external fa9ades, yet an 
examination of the plan made by John Thorpe, the surveyor, at 
the time that Kirby was built, shows that such a treatment was 
contemplated on each of the four faces (Plate XVIII.). There 
are other points of interest which Thorpe's plan elucidates. 
Having entered through the principal doorway, in the north or 
upper side of the plan, and having traversed the length of the 
court, we find a projecting porch through which the screens 
are reached. The arrangement is the typical one which we 
have seen in all the plans yet examined, and which tallies 
almost exactly with Dr. Andrew Boorde's advice, already 
quoted (see page 57), with the exception that he was opposed 
to the hall porch being exactly opposite the entrance gateway. 
On the right (as the plan lies) are the buttery and pantry, and 
the passage leading to the kitchen department ; on the left is 
the hall. The details of the kitchen department are shown 
more clearly than in any of the foregoing houses, which have 
all undergone alterations. They comprise the kitchen, with 
its large fireplace ; " the pastry," where the ovens are ; the dry 
larder under it ; the surveying place ; and the wet larder. 
Close to these, and approached by the kitchen passage, is the 
winter parlour, a room which occurs on many plans of the time 
in close proximity to the kitchen. This endeavour to get a 
living room conveniently situated for winter use is one of the 
refinements which were now creeping in. Returning to the 
screens, and passing into the hall, we find the dais marked on 
the plan, the fireplace in the side wall, but no bay window : 
there is one indicated, but it was not carried out. From the 
dais the family apartments are reached, together with a great 
staircase. Next to the head of the hall, as Dr. Andrew Boorde 
has it, is the parlour (pier) ; the other rooms are not named. 
The division of '* the lodgings by the circuit of the quadrivial 
court" is shown on Thorpe's plan, but most of the cross walls 
are now gone. It will be seen that these lodgings consist of a 
number of groups of two or three rooms (which were called 
" lodgings "), each group being entered from the court by a 
door, and each room communicating with its neighbour, so 
that the complete circuit of the building could be made through 

Plate XVIII. 


Fiom the Soaiie Museum Ci'lleelion 


them. The object of this grouping was to give a small suite of 
rooms to every guest, in which he could establish himself with 
his principal attendants ; in the case of a large retinue it could 
overflow into the next group. It was necessary to traverse the 
open court to reach the places of general resort, such as the 
hall, the " great chamber of estate," and the gallery ; but it is 
evident that this was not felt to be a drawback, since the 
practice was widespread. The next point to notice is that 
here we have the first instance of the open terrace, or arcade, 
or loggia. It occupies the north side of the court, thus being 
open to the full midday sun. The long gallery, which was 
one of the principal features of an Elizabethan house, and 
frequently affected the planning, inasmuch as endeavours were 
made to obtain a gallery of the greatest possible length, was 
over the western or left-hand side of the court : it was 150 feet 
long by 16 feet wide. The upper floor was to be reached, 
according to Thorpe's plan, by four large internal staircases, 
and two external ones on the west front. As a matter of fact, 
indications actually remain of five principal staircases, besides 
a subordinate one, and they are more conveniently placed than 
those shown on the old plan. The great extent of the rooms, 
and their being placed round a court, necessitated several 
means of access, and it must not be forgotten that the upper 
part of the hall interposed an impassable barrier between the 
two sides of the house on the upper floor. The time was soon 
to come when the height of the hall was to be restricted to that 
of other rooms on the same floor, but at Kirby the traditional 
lofty hall was still retained. 

The detail at Kirby is thoroughly Elizabethan, but there are 
a few windows, dated 1638, 1640, which were inserted by Inigo 
Jones, and he remodelled the north wing. His work, however, 
is easily distinguished from that of earlier date. The house 
was built by a Sir Humphrey Stafford, the head of a family 
seated at Blatherwyck in the immediate vicinity. It was begun 
in 1570, and it bears on the parapet of the courtyard the 
dates 1572, 1575 ; in the latter year Sir Humphrey died, luiving 
practically completed his house, which was then sold by his 
heir to Sir Christopher Hatton. Not only are the parapets 
dated, but amid the ornament of the various bands which make 
the circuit of the courtyard, and in the gable over the porch, 
occur the Stafford cognizances. Their presence indicates the 


extent of the work of Stafford, and proves that practically the 
whole place was built between the years 1570 — 75, though the 
Hattons probably made some trifling alterations during the last 
ten years of the century, and subsequently employed Inigo 
Jones to partly modernise the house fifty years later. The 
detail is unusually free and fresh, and has more variety than 
Elizabethan masons generally bestowed upon their work. The 
gable over the porch in the courtyard has no counterpart in 
England ; the coping of the parapet round the whole court has 
an unusual but effective wave ornament (Plate XIX.). 

There are, of course, the usual classic columns applied with 
a liberal hand, and all the horizontal string-courses have classic 
profiles. The carving of the friezes is interesting, inasmuch as 
it is somewhat out of the common in detail, and its component 
parts were evidently carved in large numbers, and used as 
occasion required, for in many places where the length of a 
carved stone was too great for its intended position it was 
ruthlessly shortened to fit, and the carving was mutilated. 

So far all the plans have shown a courtyard round which the 
house was built, first adopted, no doubt, from reasons of defence, 
and afterwards retained because it had become customary. We 
now come to another type of very frequent occurrence, in which 
two narrow parallel wings are connected by a narrow body, 
thus forming a figure like the letter H. It is in effect a curtail- 
ment of the older plan by leaving out the " lodgings " which 
enclosed the court ; but there is no change in the old idea of 
placing the hall in a central situation and flanking it at one 
end by the family apartments and at the other by the kitchen 
and servants' rooms. At Montacute, in Somerset (1580), the 
original relation of hall and kitchen is preserved, but the inter- 
mediate rooms have been allotted to modern uses (Fig. 47). 
It should be observed that the passage at the back of the hall 
was formed by inserting between the wings the porch and part 
of the walls from an earlier house at Clifton Maubank in the 
year 1760. This passage, which is a great convenience to the 
house, must therefore not be looked upon as part of the original 
plan. The detail of the part thus inserted is of Late Tudor 
character. The profiles of the mouldings are Gothic, the 
carving inclines towards Italian, the parapets have cusped 
panels, the pinnacles have the spiral twist so dear to the Tudor 
mason, and a battlemented moulding beneath the heraldic 














=F^ = 

Ig^, ' , 







animals which they support (Plate XX.). The treatment is quite 
different from that of the house itself. Another point to remark 


47.— MoNTACLTK HoISK, SoMKKSKT. GkoINI) Pi.AN (iSfil)). 


I. Hall. 2. DravvinK-rooin. 3. Lar^e I)iniiif{-rooin. 4. Small I)iiiiii>;-rooiii. 5. Sini)king-rooni. 
6. Pantry. 7. Kitchen. 8. Servants' Hall. y. Porch. 10. Garcicn-houso. 

about the plan is that all thoughts of defence are here ahan(i(jncd, 
and the windows look freely out on all sides. Indeed, far from 
desiring to exclude people, the builder, Sir Edward Phelips, 



wrote up over his door, " Through this tvide-opcning gate, none 
come too early, none return too late.'' It will also be noticed 
that in order to get a truly symmetrical disposition of windows, 
the bay is removed from the end to the middle of the hall, 
which is another indication of a tendency to depart from the 
ancient arrangements. 

It is true that there is a court at Montacute, but it is enclosed 
by an open balustrade and not by solid buildings ; it is there 
for delight and not for defence, and everything in the planning 
shows that the builder considered he could occupy his house 
in security. 

On the top floor, over the hall and running from end to end 

48. — Montacute House, Somerset. Garden Front, with Court and 
Garden-houses (1580). 

of the building, is the gallery ; it is lighted at each end and 
down so much of the side as is not blocked by the wings of the 
house, which of course it cuts off from the staircases and the 
other rooms. The treatment of the elevations is as symmetrical 
as that of the plan (Fig. 48). The area of window space is in 
excess of that of wall space, the strings are of some depth and 
of classic profile, and the whole appearance contrasts strongly 
with that of Hengrave. Along the topmost floor in the spaces 
between the windows are eight statues, which, with a ninth in 
the central gable, are said to represent those Nine Worthies 
whom Holofernes and his companions tried to represent in a 
more dramatic manner before the Princess of France and her 
lively attendants. 

It has already been observed that the plan of Montacute is 

Plate XX. 





shaped roughly Hke the letter H. This type of plan is very 
frequent, and is the same in its essence as the E plan, of which 
many writers have made more than is needful. The m plan 
is in fact the same as the H with the side strokes curtailed. 
To make a just comparison, either the centre stroke of the m 
should be omitted or it should be added to the cross of the H, 
inasmuch as it represents the projecting porch, which was 
present equally in each arrangement. The fact that the m 
plan resembles the first letter of Elizabeth is probably a 
coincidence merely, and not a compliment to the queen. At 
the same time it would have 
been quite in accordance with 
the spirit of the time to have 
taken such a way of expressing 
loyalty, only in that case we 
should have expected to find 
fewer plans of the H variety, 
and more of the other ; but as 
a matter of fact there are few, 
if any, houses with a perfectly 
straight front such as the back 
of the m demands. 

At Barlborough, in Derby- 
shire (1583), we get again a 
different type. The house is 
built round a court, but an 
extremely small one, now filled 
with a modern staircase 
(Fig. 49). All the windows 
look out into the open country. Instead of extending itself 
along the ground, the house provides its accommodation 
by extending itself vertically, and the kitchen and servants' 
rooms are placed in the basement. This was an idea intro- 
duced, it is said, from Italy, but it is one which, though some- 
times met with, did not commend itself to Elizabethan builders 
when space was plentiful. The hall is on the principal floor, 
and is approached from outside up a long flight of steps. The 
screens led to the staircase which penetrated to the kitchen in 
the basement. The hall had its bay window at the dais end, 
from which the great chamber was approached. We have 
still, therefore, the old idea of the hall as a living room, and 

49. — Barlborough Ham,, Dkrhyshire. 
Plan ok Princihal Floor (1583). 



part of a series of rooms communicating with each other; not 
yet as an entrance from which the hving rooms are approached. 
The detail at Barlborough is of a simple kind ; the house 
was not of a large size and did not require much elaboration 
(Fig. 50). The actual classic treatment is confined to the 
front door, which is flanked with columns. The parapet is 

50.— Barlhorolgh Hai,l, Dkkuvshirk. Kntkanck Front (1583). 

battlemented, the strings are narrow, and the windows are not 
overwhelming in size. The roof is flat, and there are none of 
the gables which are so marked a feature of the time. Pic- 
turesqueness of outline, however, which was always sought for, 
is here obtained by carrying up the bay windows as turrets, 
a treatment which lends much distinction to an otherwise 
simple exterior. 

^ ■:!. 


y a 

O 2 



Twelve years later than Barlborough we j^et at Doddington, 
in Lincolnshire (1595), ^ P^^^ri which reverts to the type of 
Montacute (Fig. 51). It has the usual characteristics of the 
simplest kind — wings one room thick ; the entrance at the 
end of the hall, leading on the left to the buttery, pantry, and 
kitchens ; the parlour at the head of the hall, and the principal 
staircase adjacent. Here, however, as at Montacute, the hall 
is only one storey in height ; it has a room above it — the great 
chamber : and on the top floor the gallery extends over the 
whole central part from wing to wing. 

There is an entrance court in front of the house enclosed by 
a wall. It is approached through one of the (}uaint gate-houses 

51. — I)oi)uiN(iTON Hall, Lincolnshire. Gkound I'lan (1595). 

of the time, which were a reminiscence of a more turbulent 
state of society, when it was necessary for all who went to 
the house to do so under the eye of the porter, but which in 
the calmer times of Elizabeth were occupied by some of the 
numerous functionaries who ministered to the pleasures of the 
rich. The detail at Doddington is of the plainest, the only 
attempt at richness being round the front door. The windows 
are of reasonable size, the strings are narrow, and are all of 
the same quasi-classic profile. The parapet is perfectly plain, 
and the roof is without gables, the sky-line being broken, as at 
Barlborough, with turrets, formed by carrying up the porch 
and the two projections in the internal angles of the front 
(Plate XXI.). The house is an example of a plain and business- 
like type, which may be accounted for by the fact that it was 



built for a business man, one Thomas Tailor, registrar to the 
Bishop of Lincoln. 

\\'ith the opening of the new century we get at Burton 
Agnes, in Yorkshire (1602 — 10), a repetition of the same leading 
idea which we have been following for a hundred and fifty years 
(Fig. 52). We have the screens at the end of the hall, the 
kitchens on the left, and the bay window, the family rooms and 
grand staircase at the head of the hall. The family apartments 
have increased in number. The tendency was towards having 
separate apartments for various uses, and on plans of the time 
we not infrequently find a "dining parlour" specially named. 

The i n t r o - 
refin e m e n t 
marks the 
dwindling im- 
portance of 
the hall. The 
latter is ceas- 
ing to be the 
centre of 
family life, 
and becoming 
merely an en- 
trance. The 
dais end is no 
longer the 

52. — Burton Agnks, Yorkshirk. Ground Plan (1602 — 10). COmiOrtable 

place it was, 
with its bay window and the fireplace close by : it is becoming 
pierced with doors, and draughty. The family find it more 
comfortable to have a separate room for their meals, and the 
servants' quarters are becoming more self-contained. The old 
usages of the hall are being discontinued. 

This change is quite apparent in the last plan of the series, 
that of Aston Hall, in Warwickshire (1618 — 35). The hall is 
still central, the kitchen is in one wing, the family rooms in 
the other, supplemented by a row at the back of the hall 
(Fig. 53). But the hall itself is now merely an entrance — it has 
ceased to be a living-room ; it is entered from the middle of 
the side, no longer at the end, where indeed the fireplace now 



finds itself: there is no dais and no bay window. Tiiis is a 
revolution which it has taken more than a century to produce, 




wj / O 


53.— Aston Ham,, nkak Hikminc.iiam. (".koi-nd I' (ifiiS 35). 

countinj.^ from the first appearance of tht; Italian inlluence. 
The chan^jje no doubt was effected from the inside more than 
the out : from the j^^radnal alteration of habits, rather than 
from the wish to Italiani/c; our l-'nj^^lish plans. Hut the two 
R.A. F 



tendencies co-operated with each other and combined to lead 
EngHsh designers further and further away from the old 

Although the hall shows a departure from the old lines of 
planning, the general arrangement adheres to them. The 
symmetrical wings, the mullioned windows, the turrets 

(Fig. 54), the 
fore-court with 
its lodges at the 
corners, and the 
open arcade on 
the south front, 
are all in keeping 
with Elizabethan 
and Jacobean 
methods, and 
offer a striking 
contrast to the 
work at Rainham 
Hall, in Norfolk, 
which was built 
by Inigo Jones 
in 1630, five years 
before Aston was 

The disappear- 
ance of the hall 
as a living-room, 
and its adoption 
as a vestibule, mark a great change in our domestic archi- 
tecture. The tie with the mediaeval past is loosened, and 
with the almost contemporaneous departure of the mullioned 
window it is severed altogether ; there is nothing now to prevent 
English designers from assimilating their buildings ever more 
and more to the models which they sought direct in Italy, 
without being diverted from their purpose by what they passed 
in intermediate countries. 

54. — Aston Hall, Warwickshirk. North Wing. 



There was a very remarkable amount of building done in 
the last quarter of the sixteenth century. Plenty of money was 
available, much of it acquired from the lands of the dissolved 
monasteries ; the country was at peace, and the strong rule of 
Elizabeth gradually produced a state of prosperity hitherto 
unknown. Defensive precautions, save such as seemed necessary 
against vagrants, were abandoned in all kinds of houses. The 
outer courts, the inner courts, and the gate-houses, which 
formerly were built for the sake of security, were now retained 
chiefly for the sake of appearance, and because they added to 
the privacy of the house. The porter at the gate exercised a 
certain amount of control over those who wished to enter, and 
on occasion he closed his gates against the populace, although 
sometimes without complete success, as we learn from a scene 
in Shakespeare's play of " Henry VIII.," where the people, in 
their anxiety to see something of the christening of the infant 
Princess Elizabeth, managed to crowd in, in spite of " as much 
as one sound cudgel of four foot could distribute" at the hands 
of the porter's man. 

Everyone who could afford it seems to have built in the time 
of Elizabeth and James. The great nobles erected vast palaces 
like Theobalds and Holdenby, like Audley End, and Knole 
and Buckhurst. Men of smaller wealth built mansions like 
Kirby and Montacute, WoUaton and Blickling. Squires built 
their manor houses in the villages, merchants their homes in 
the towns, not infrequently, indeed, leaving the city for some 
neighbouring parish, and there ending their days as lords of 
the manor. When the conditior^of an existing house did not 
warrant its actual removal, additions in the new style were 
made; something had to be done to keep in the fashion. 

F 2 


Throughout the length and breadth of the land the same 
activity was displayed. From Yorkshire and Westmoreland in 
the north, to Cornwall and Kent in the south ; from Shropshire 
in the west to Suffolk in the east, we find work of this period 
scattered up and down the country in mansion, manor house, 
cottage and church. 

A good deal of building was done in Henry VIII. 's time, 
but vastly more in Elizabeth's. The examples left to us of the 
former period are few compared with those of the latter ; but 
in both cases it must be remembered that the old gave way to 
the new. The builders of Elizabeth's days removed the work 
of their grandfathers to make room for their own, only to have 
this in its turn replaced in the times of Anne and the Georges. 
Many as are the houses of the sixteenth century which remain, 
we know that many others, of equal interest and beauty, have 
been pulled down. 


It is not always easy in the present day to grasp the system 
upon which the larger houses of Elizabeth's time were laid out. 
Modern methods of locomotion, and modern ideas of con- 
venience, have in many cases caused the approach to the 
houses to be altered. It is the same with regard to most of 
our ancient cities. The railway now brings us to a spot which 
has no relation to the old landmarks of the place, and instead 
of approaching our destination through the ancient arteries, 
which were the growth of many years, we slip in through by- 
ways and slums, or along a new street made expressly for the 
purpose. The approach to one of the larger Elizabethan 
houses was an affair of time. Roads were then of a very 
primitive description, and depended for their condition upon 
the nature of the soil, " There is good land where there is foul 
way," was a saying of the time ; and conversely, where there 
was a hard road there was likely to be stony land. From the 
main road a similar rough track led, perhaps through an avenue 
of newly planted trees, in a straight line towards the house. 
There was no gate-keeper's lodge at the end of a finely gravelled 
road winding through a park. The lodge was part of the out- 
buildings of the house, and until you arrived there the road was 
generally left to take care of itself. After passing through the 
lodge, there were often two courts to traverse before the hall 



was reached. The lod<:^e was on the great axial hne of the 
house, so that as you stood waiting, if all the doors happened 
to be open, you could see right through the courts and the 
screens and get 
a glimpse of the 
garden beyond. 
The accom- 
panying plan of 
the lay-out of 
Holdenby (Fig. 
55), from a sur- 
vey made in 
1587, gives a 
good idea of the 
surroundings of 
the larger Eliza- 
bethan houses. 
The road be- 
tween two vil- 
lages ran along 
the north side 
of the park, and 
from this road 
branched an- 
other one which 
led up to the 
house. While 
it traversed the 
j) a r k it w a s 
allowed to wind 
according to the 
undulations of 
the ground, but 
when it came to 
within a quarter 
of a mile of the 
lodge it was 

m;ide perfectly straight, and so ran through the midst of " the 
green" — "a large, long, straight, fair way," as Lord Hurghlcy 
called it. It led directlv to the porter's lodge, which was a 
building separate from the house, and self-contained, and it 

55.- IIol.DKNIlV Hot'SK, NoKTHAMl'TONSllIkK. Pl.AN 

Fkom a Survky madk in 15.S7. 

A A. Th<- I'ark. 

li. liasc-court. 

c. l'"irst Court of House. 

I) I). Giirdfiis. 

K. Koscry. 

F K. 'I'trracfs. 


Site of Old Hoiis<!. 




Porter's Lodye- 


passed the long range of stabling on the right. The porter's lodge 
opened into the first court, the " base-court," as it was called, 
walled round, and entered on its two sides by large gateways. 
At the further end of the base-court stood the house, raised a few 
steps above the general level, where Lord Burghley "found a 
great magnificence in the front or front pieces of the house, and 
so every part answerable to other, to allure liking." The house 
was built round two great courts, the first 128 feet by 104 feet, 
the second 140 feet by no feet, comparable in point of size to 
those at Hampton Court, and a good deal more intricate 
in detail. To the north of the house itself were two walled 
gardens, of nearly an acre each, and beyond these were spinneys, 
or small woods, and the little village with its inn. The ground 
on the south side of the house sloped pretty steeply away, and 
was laid out in a series of terraces. At the top of these, and 
flanking the whole length of the base-court, the house, and the 
orchard beyond, ran a broad straight path. In the midst of the 
terraces a great platform was run out at the level of this long 
path, containing a rosery laid out with paths in a simple geo- 
metrical pattern. At the extreme end of the long path was a 
cross-path leading each way to a prospect mount, up at least one 
of which wound a spiral path, ending (in all probability) in a 
banqueting house, such as Lord Bacon describes in his essay 
" Of Gardens," and such as the Parliamentary Commissioners 
describe as being at Nonesuch in the year 1650. At the foot 
of the terraces lay fishponds amid orchard-trees, and, in a 
small enclosure of its own, the church. Close to the church 
was the site of the old manor house, the home of Sir Christopher 
Hatton's fathers, but which he found far too insignificant a 
dwelling for the Lord Chancellor. 

Such were the surroundings of one of the most splendid 
palaces of Elizabeth's splendid courtiers, and an examination 
of the contemporary survey shows upon what a large scale the 
house and its appurtenances were laid out. The house covered 
nearly two acres ; the base-court more than one acre ; the 
green more than seventeen. In comparison with the house the 
village is a mere collection of outhouses, not so extensive as 
the range of stabling. The garden has not acquired all the 
architectural adjuncts in the way of stone terraces, and garden- 
houses, lead vases, statuary and jets d'eau, which became 
ashionable a hundred years later; but it has a fine simplicity 



about it and a largeness of scale which are in keeping with the 
house it belongs to. 

Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, was the model upon which Sir 
Christopher Hatton professed to have founded his own more 
magnificent house at Holdenby, and there is an interesting 
account, written by John Savile, of King James's visit to 
Theobalds on his first coming 
to London in 1603.* It is an 
early example of descriptive 
reporting which would do 
credit to one of our great 
daily papers. Theobalds 
was the house of Sir Robert 
Cecil, afterwards Lord Salis- 
bury, and had been built and 
embellished by his father, the 
great Lord Treasurer. The 
writer particularl}- mentions 
the approach to the house, 
which stood back from the 
highway, unlike the " manie 
sumptuous buildings" in the 
neighbourhood, most of 
which belonged "to the cittie 
marchants." It was reached 
by a most stately walk raised 
above the general level, and 
beset about either side with 
young elm and ash trees 
extending from the common 
street way to the first court 
belonging to the house. In 
order to obtain full parti- 
culars of the proceedings, Savile stationed one of his party 
at the upper end of the walk, another at the upper end 
of the first court, while a third stood at the second court 
door, and he also arranged with "a gentleman of good sort " 
to stand in the court that led into the hall, and furnish 
particulars of the ceremonies invisible to the others. After the 
king had at length entered the house, the crowd of sightseers 
* Nichols' Progresses of King James /., Vol. I. 135. 




Block I' 



surged even into the uppermost court, apparently without pro- 
test from the porter, and to their view the monarch graciously 
displayed himself at his windows for the space of half an hour, 
previous to going into the " laberinth-like garden to wali<e." 

Lodges and Gateways. 

Sometimes the lodge formed part of the buildings enclosing 
the first court, in which case one or two rooms or " lodgings " 

of the wing on 
- either side of the 

gateway would 
be devoted to 
the porter, in 
the same way as 
the entrance to 
most of the col- 
leges at Oxford 
and Cambridge 
is still arranged. 
But very fre- 
quently it was 
separated from 
the house by a 
court enclosed 
by a wall, as it 
was at Holden- 
by, and again at 
the much smaller 
house at Dod- 
dington (Fig. 
56). This wall 
was sometimes 
high and solid, 
and sometimes 
coped "leaning 
height,"' as John 
Thorpe has it 
on one of his 
plans, or sometimes pierced with ornamental patterns. 

The lodge itself was generally large enough to accommodate 

57. — Stokksav Casti.k, Shkopshirk. The Gatehouse. 

S ° 

W 3 

H 2 

W S 

o S 



I— 1 



c/) t« 

^ O 




the porter and his family. 

58. — Cold Ashton Hall, Glouckstk 
Entrance Gateway. 

of two separate brick build 
roof and some pierced 
stonework, displaying 
the mullet or five- 
pointed star of the 
owner (Plate XX 1 1 1.). 
The smaller houses 
had merely a gateway 
of more or less pre- 
tensions, such as may 
be seen at ('old 
Ashton, near Hath 
(I'^ig. 58), a charming 
little entrance on the 
roadside leading 
straight up by a paved 
walk to the front 
door of the house ; 
or at W i n w i c k , 
in Northamptonshire 
(I'^ig. 59), the stately 

having two rooms downstairs and 
perhaps three above, but 
occasionally there were 
even three floors, as at 
Stanway in Gloucester- 
shire (Plate XXIL), while 
at Hamstall Rid ware, in 
Staffordshire, the lodge 
was merely a gateway 
between two flanking 
turrets only seven feet 
across inside. At Stoke- 
say Castle, in Shropshire, 
is a charming lodge or 
gate-house of timber and 
plaster, added in Eliza- 
beth's time to the ancient 
castle (Fig. 57) ; and at 

KSM.m:. Westwood in Worcester- 

shire the lodge is formed 

ings connected by an open timber 









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i -3 

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r ^\ 

M. - M 

I 1 



1 1 

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fcv- Kh\ 







Manok IIoisi:. 



60.— Gateway to Almshoisks, Ol'NDI.k, 

which they stand, but they 
of oiithne which 
was considered 
indispensable in 
work of the time; 
moreover, the cir- 
cular gable over 
the a r c h w a }• 
affords room for 
a panel contain- 
ing the owner's 
arms, although, 
by an irony of 
fate which would 
have anno\ed 
him deeply, the 
bearings are now 
This gateway 
vies in import- 
ance with those 
at Holdenb\- 

remnant of a house now 
much curtailed in si^e. This 
example is treated in a more 
important manner than usual, 
the masonry flanking the arch- 
way on either side being of 
considerable width, and elabo- 
rately ornamented with sunk 
patterns and carving. The 
well-proportioned columns are 
disengaged from the wall 
behind them, and the whole 
treatment of the lower part as 
far as the top of the cornice 
calls to mind some of the 
Roman arches to be met 
with in Italy. The pediments 
above the cornice are hardly 
equal to the structure upon 
give that variety and piquancy 

nKNHV, Northamptonshire. Gatkwavs to 
Base-court 1585). 


{Fig. 6i), but the house at Win wick could never have been 
more than a good-sized manor house. At Cold Ashton the 
gateway is more in scale with the house, and although the 
central feature above the cornice is mutilated, the arms still 
remain. The effect of this roadside gateway is heightened 
by the circular steps and the mounting-block. At Oundle, in 
Northamptonshire, there is an example of a small gateway 
in the front wall of some almshouses (Fig. 60) which, in 
spite of its insignificant size, imparts considerable interest 

and even dignity to the 

group of which it is the ^^Ml ^11 '-li^HKr^lAHBB^ "^W^ 1 
central feature. In large 
houses the entrance 
courts not infrequently 
had archways in their 
side walls to afford 
access to the gardens 
or the orchard. The 
base-court at Holdenby 
has already been men- 
tioned as having a gate- 
way in each of its sides, 
apart altogether from 
the gate-house or 
porter's lodge. These 
two gateways still re- 
main (Fig.6i), although 
most of the house and 
its adjuncts have dis- 
appeared, leaving them stranded in a position that is hardly 
intelligible without the aid of a plan showing the original 
arrangement. They bear the date 15H5, and a shield of arms 
containing fourteen quarterings of the owner, Sir ("hristopher 
Hatton. In general treatment they resemble the similar gate- 
ways in the forecourt at Kirby, which also belonged t(^ Sir 
Christopher, and they are more remarkable for their size and 
stateliness than for the beauty of their detail : but it should 
not be forgotten that the walls which supported them on 
either side, and which connected them with the great house, 
are gone, and that, denuded of their original surroundings, 
they appear much more heavy and cumbrous than when the\- 

62. -Kknyon Pkki. 


CouuT (1631). 



were a small part of a large scheme. Much smaller than the 
base-court at Holdenby was the forecourt at Kenyon Peel, in 
Lancashire, a half-timber house with a symmetrical m front, 
and approached through a two-storey stone gate-house, joined to 

[ XvT^— XI7 \i/ -<^ Xi/ TWT'W 

□ilpf afO'Ciiffallflf^ 

63, — DoDDiNiiTON Hall, Lincolnshikk. Entranxe Doorway (1595). 

the house itself by stone walls. The gate-house is rather gaunt, 
Hkc many of the stone buildings in that district, but in the little 
gateways in the side of the court (Fig. 62) an ejffort has been 
made to produce something less severe. The mixture of the 
stonework and the black-and-white work of the house is effective, 
and the small court, with its formal paved walks leading from 
the gate-house to the porch, and from one side doorway to the 



other, is full of interest ; especially as the house lies ainid the 
chimneys of a busy part of Lancashire, and is surrounded by 
the abomination of desolation which accompanies the spread of 
populous places. The initials G. R. occur in the topmost step 
of the coping, and the date 1631 on the lintel of the doorwa}-. 

Entrance Doorways and Porches. 

The lodge or the gateway, as the case might be, was generally 
adorned in some conspicuous place with the arms of the 
family, the squires 
of the time being 
as proud of their 
various cogni- 
zances as Justice 
Shallow was of his 
twelve luces. Five 
out of the eight 
examples already 
illustrated are so 
adorned. The 
same shield that 
appears on the 
gateway is also fre- 
quently to be seen 
over the door of 
the house itself, 
which is reached 
after crossing the 
court. The door- 
w ay g e n e r a 1 1 y 
formed part of a 
somewhat elabo- 
rate piece of orna- 
ment, for, however simple (and sometimes even monotonous) 
the general treatment of the house was, the front d(K)r 
was made handsome. At Doddington, in Lincolnshire, while 
the bulk of the house is of plain l)rickwork, including the 
parapet, the doorway is treated with a considerable amount 
of elaboration (Fig. 63). 

The door stood more often than not in a projecting porch, 

64. - l'oK( H A 1 CnKi.\KV Cm;Kr, Somkkskt (cik. ibjc)). 



which, although sometimes only one storey in height, as at 
Chelvey Court, in Somerset (Fig. 64), was usually higher, and 
was frequently carried up the full height of the building. It 
is round these doors that we find pronounced classic features 
employed in the shape of pillars and pilasters, friezes and 
cornices, and pediments. But it was seldom that the English 
mason did not introduce into his design some departure from 
strict classic treatment, suggested by his native traditions. 

At Chelvey the door- 
way has a flat-pointed 
head resting on an 
impost, such as 
usually accompanies 
a semicircular arch : 
there is also a key- 
stone which protrudes 
from the straight 
lintel instead of 
crowning the arch, 
which in the ordinary 
way would be there. 
The twisted columns 
support pilasters of a 
different scale, which 
in their turn, however^ 
are relieved of any- 
thing to carry. The 
broken pediment en- 
closes a shield of 
arms, which rests in 
the usual fashion 
upon a base carried 
by the keystone. Over all is a pierced parapet divided into 
square panels by shallow pilasters. The spirit of the whole com- 
position is Jacobean, but the treatment betokens a late date, 
with its twisted columns and broken pediment ; and the arms 
confirm the conjecture prompted by the character of the work, 
though the exact date is not recorded. It is evident, however, 
that even in Somerset, the home of good masons, the lesson of 
making appropriate use of classic features had not yet been 
mastered. The treatment of the doorway at the neighbouring 



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■ -^ 

^H ^^^^^^^R^^^I^^HB^^H^^^H 


r^j^.i .... 







65. — Doorway at Nailsea Court, Somerset. 

o 9. 
< "f 

O 2 




house of Nailsea Court (Fig. 65) is more logical and pleasing. 
There is a quaint mixture of pointed arch and classic cornice 
and corbelled bay-window ; and the manner in which the central 
projection in the cornice is made the starting-point of the 
corbelling to the bay is a happy illustration of the freedom with 
which the new features were handled. 

At Chipchase Castle, in Northumberland (Plate XXIV.), a 
square porch is combined with a canted bay above it. The door- 
way follows the more usual pattern ; it has the circular arch resting 
on imposts, a project- 
ing keystone carried 
up to break the lines 
of the cornice, and is 
flanked on either side 
by a circular column, 
which endeavours to 
justify its presence by 
carrying an obelisk. 
The obelisks serve the 
useful purpose of 
breaking the severe 
line of the splay which 
joins the octagonal 
bay to the square 
porch below it, and 
they, together with 
the shield of arms 
and the carving on 
the columns and the 
voussoirs of the 
arch, impart considerable richness to the whole composition. 
At Gayhurst, in Buckinghamshire, the columns, which are 
primarily introduced for the sake of ornament, are made to 
do actual duty by supporting a slight projection of the storey 
above them (Fig. 66) ; and there are two tiers of them, a fact 
which helps to increase the importance of the entrance. In 
this, as in similar cases, the cornices are continued along the 
sides of the projecting porch, and are stopped against the face 
of the main building. At Upper Slaughter, in Gloucestershire 
(Plate XXIV.), the porch has more of the appearance of being 
an excrescence, the only connecting member being the string 

66. — Doorway at Gayhukst, Buckinc.hamshikk 



over the upper windows of the house, which is returned along 

the sides of the porch. 
The cornices of the porch 
are in this instance only 
just returned round its 
outer angles, and not car- 
ried back to the main 
building. The pilasters 
are merely ornamental 
adjuncts: there is no pre- 
tence about them of doing 
any work ; the head of the 
upper window breaks un- 
ceremoniously into the 
frieze of the cornice, the 
keystone of the arch is 
carried up so that the 
lines of the lower cornice 

-DOORWAV AT UO,,., ASHTON, G .01 CKSTKRSH. KK . j-^ ^y ^^j-gg^j^ rOUUd It, aud 

the whole treatment shows that the designer was free from 
any morbid craving after 
correctness. In the door- 
way at Hatfield, in the side 
of the court (PlateXXV.), 
the work is handled in 
a more formal manner. 
There is the semicircular 
arch, with its impost, and 
the two flanking pilasters 
carried up in order to 
break the cornice, while a 
central projection follows 
up from the keystone. 
There is no crowning 
pediment, but in its place 
is a strapwork pattern 
terminating at the top 
with a point which finds 
itself in the centre of one 

r .1 . • 1 1 • .1 OS, — DoOKWAV AT ChKNKY CoUIlT, SOMKKSKI'. 

oi the triglyphs in the 

entablature which makes the circuit of the whole house at the 





first floor level. The archway at the foot of the grand 
staircase at Wardour Castle (Plate XXV.) is treated with still 
greater propriety; the designer has allowed himself to take 
no liberties with his copy, but the severity is relieved by the 
informal manner in which the steps wind away to the left. 
This is an accident arising from the fact that the staircase is 
of an older date: 
it is covered 
with Gothic 
vaulting, and at 
its upper end 
the original 
pointed arch 
has been made 
and the stone 
round it has 
been recessed so 
as to surround 
it with a square 
moulded frame 
in the manner 
prevalent at the 
beginning of 
the seventeenth 
century. At 
Cold Ashton we 
have a simple 
doorway in a 
shallow projec- 
tion between 
the two wings 
of the house 

(F'ig. 67), and at Cheney Court there is another simple form 
of doorway ; it has no pilasters, but a curved pediment, 
supported on corbels, forms a hood (Fig. 6(S)— a mode of 
treatment adopted towards the close of the Jacobean period, 
and handled here with a pleasant freedom, a panel being con- 
trived in the middle of the frie/e to contain the fainil}- arms. 
At Woollas Hall (Fig. 6g) there is a boldl\- projecting porch, 
R.A. G 


liNTKAScK Front (1611). 



thrusting itself out beyond the main face of the house, and 
f^iving from its oriel on the top floor a wide view over the 
surroundin*^ country. 

The ruins at Gorhambury, near St. Albans, a house built 

70. — Porch at Gorhambuky, Hekti-ordshirk (1568). 

by Sir Nicholas Bacon, the father of Lord Bacon, present 
another treatment, which can still be made out in spite of the 
modern brick buttresses, and the brick arch which has been 
inserted below the ori^^inal one of stone (Fi<:^. 70). There is 
a projecting porch of two storeys, with all its three external 
faces carefully treated, the front being made rather more 
elaborate by the introduction of niches with statues. The 
employment of statues and busts as decorative features was 
a favourite device of the time. They were almost invariably 
of classic origin, and attired in classic garb, the most modern 
personages usually admitted to this distinction being those 
three of the Nine Worthies who were of Christian extraction. 
In the spandrils of the arch are circular medallions with busts, 
and in the parapet are the royal arms. There was also over 



the arch (we are told) a grey marble panel with four Latin 
verses, stating that the house was finished in the tenth year of 
Elizabeth's reign by Nicholas Bacon, whom she made a knight, 
and Keeper of her Seal. Below these verses was the aphorism 
" Mediocria firma," that is, " Firm is the middle state." 

71. — Hamhi.kton Hai.i., 

Statues, busts, and inscriptions are all characteristic of the 
taste of the period, and will be more particularly dealt with 
later on in connection with the design of chimney-pieces. The 
house which was thus finished in the tenth year of Elizabeth, 
that is in 1568, was begun (according to an account in the 
possession of a local antiquary) on the ist day of March, 1563, 
thus taking five years to build. It was not of vast extent, but 
it comprised two courts, one for the house, the other for the 
kitchens. The porch illustrated was approached in a direct 
line across the larger of these courts, and led into the screens 
in the usual way ; the windows visible to the left of the porch 
lighted the great hall at the dais end. There is very little left 
of the old walls, but the extent of the hall can be made out, 
as well as the position of a clock tower; and at some little 
<listance there remains another niche with a headless statue 

G 2 



in it, no doubt that of Henry VIII., which we are told was 
put up on the occasion of the Queen's second visit to Gorham- 
bury. Her first visit was paid in 1572, four years after the 
completion of the house, on which occasion the Queen told 
the Lord Keeper that he had made his house too little for him, 
whereupon he replied, " Not so, madam, but your Majesty has 
made me too big for my house." He was, however, resolved 
not to be open to such a reproach again, and on receiving an 
intimation that the Queen would visit him a second time (in 
1577) he is said to have built a gallery of lath and plaster 
120 feet long by 18 feet wide, beneath which were cloisters, 

and in the middle of 
their length the statue 
of King Henry in gilt 
armour. This enlarg- 
ing of the house for the 
express purpose of re- 
ceiving the Queen was 
only one of numerous 
instances, which will 
be referred to in a 
subsequent chapter, as 
also will the proportion 
of the long galleries 
so distinctive of the 

The gallery was 
panelled with oak gilt, 
and on the panelling 
were Latin inscriptions, so aptly selected that it was considered 
worth while to collect them in a small volume, illuminated 
with much beauty. In the orchard was a banqueting-house, 
which in its turn was adorned with busts and inscriptions. 
These all related to specific subjects — grammar, arithmetic, 
logic, music, rhetoric, geometry, and astrology ; and each 
subject was not only depicted on the walls, but was further 
illustrated by appropriate verses and the pictures of such 
learned men as had excelled in it.* Although most of them 
were selected from the ancients, yet Sir Nicholas Bacon was 

72. — Chastlkton, Oxfordshire. Ground Plan (cir. 1603). 

1. Hall. 4. Nursery. 

2. Little Parlour. 5. Chamber over Kitchen. 

3. Great Parlour. 6. Pantry. 

7. Parlour. 

Nichols' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, Vol II 

^- 9. 

C 5 
A 9 



sufficiently catholic in his taste to admit such modern names 
as Lilly, the grammarian, and Copernicus, the "astrologer," 
the latter of whom had only been dead some thirty years. 

Another kind of entrance is afforded by the arcaded porch, 
of which a simple example is to be seen at Hambleton, in 
Rutland (Fig. 71), and a more elaborate one at Cranborne, 
in Dorset (Plate XXVI.), where it was added, along with other 
" modern " features, to an old manor house dating from the 
thirteenth century, in order to bring the house into the 
prevailing fashion. 

So far all the en- 
trances which have 
been mentioned 
were in the main 
face of the building, 
the front doors 
being in the centre 
of the fa9ade. As 
the front door 
almost always led 
into the screens 
at the end of the 
hall, it followed as 
a matter of course 
that the hall itself 
occupied only a little 
more than half the 
length of the facade. 
In some instances, 
however, the hall 
was made to occupy 
the centre of it, and in such cases the porch could no longer 
be central, but was moved to one side, and made to balance 
a corresponding projection which served as the bay window 
of the hall : the doorway was then placed, not in the front 
face but the side face of the porch, as may be seen at 
Chastleton, in Oxfordshire (Fig. 72), and Burton Agnes, in 
Yorkshire (Fig. 52). The main approach was therefore still 
on the axial line, but on mounting the final steps, instead 
of going straight forward into the porch, you turned either 
to the right or left (in the two instances illustrated it 




was to the left) and so through the porch to the screens. At 
Chastleton the old arrant^ement remains perfect ; the screen is 
there, and also the dais with the bay window at the end of it. 
At Fountains Hall, in Yorkshire, the same idea is carried out, 
but as the ground slopes very steeply, the principal floor is 
some feet above the ground at the entrance. The doorway 
is central, and immediately on entering, a straight flight of 

steps leads off to 
the right up to the 
main floor, which it 
gains just in time 
for a turn to the 
left to lead into the 

In situations re- 
quiring less orna- 
mental treatment, 
a very pleasing type 
of doorway came 
mto use, and lin- 
gered on in remote 
places far into the 
days of regular 
classic architecture. 
Such doors abound 
in the stone villages 
of Somerset and 
thence northwards 
through the Cots- 
wolds and Oxfordshire, up to Northamptonshire and Rutland. 
They are usually flat-pointed, and the jambs have two moulded 
orders, the inner one going round the flat-pointed head, w^hile 
the outer one forms a square frame round it, as in the example 
from Lyddington (Fig. JZ)- There is not much of the classic 
manner about such a door, especially when, as in this instance, 
the label is returned down the ends of the head. But the 
section of the jamb-mould is an adaptation of the contours 
found in classic work, and the label not infrequently was treated 
in the manner of a cornice, instead of being returned, as it is 
in this example and that from Broadway in Fig. 74. There 
is a small doorway of this kind at Aylesford Hall, in Kent 

74. — Doorway at Broadway, Worcestershire. 



(Fij^. 75), which shows a curious mixture, for the head has a 
fairly high-pointed Gothic arch, while the label is of classic 
profile, and is ornamented with dentils : the spandrils are filled 
with shields of late design, one of which bears the date 1590, 
thus showing how long the old traditional forms lingered in 
places. The masons of the time made use of a type of door 
which was chiefly of Gothic descent, but they varied its features 
at will. The head was either high-pointed, flat-pointed, or 
elliptical, as their fancy dictated ; and the label was either 
moulded after the fashion of their youth, or in accordance with 
the newer forms which they saw in use around them. It is in 
such unimportant matters as these, where no one was parti- 
cularly concerned about the result, that we see how the 
workmen availed themselves indifferently of the old forms or 
the new. 

75.- DooRWAV AT Ayi.kskoki) HAi.r,, Kknt (ijyo). 




Before proceeding to enter one of these doorways and to 
examine the interior treatment of an Elizabethan house, it will 
be well to look at the exterior more closely. We find that the 
effect, although often elaborate and striking, is produced by 
very simple means. The picturesque appearance of Haddon 
and Compton Winyates is chiefly due to the irregularity of the 
plan, which in the case of the former was largely the result of 
a gradual growth, extending over some centuries. The stately 
effect of the Elizabethan house is the result of regularity and 
symmetry in the plan, and its picturesqueness springs from its 
windows, gables and chimneys. The English designer avoided, 
as a rule, very large plain surfaces and long unbroken fa9ades, 
differing in the latter respect from his Italian contemporaries. 
He diversified his long fronts by throwing out bay-windows ; 
he broke up the skyline with gables; he grouped his chimneys 
so as to add emphasis to the design ; and there were always 
the mullioned windows, of which the relatively small divisions 
gave scale and life to the whole. There are many houses which 
have no further attempt at ornament than these features, and 
these are felt to be quite sufficient ; but occasionally, when a 
great effort was demanded, the Elizabethan designer borrowed 
his ornament from abroad, and added a multiplicity of pilasters 
and niches to his walls, extravagant and fantastic curves to his 
gables, while, in order to avail himself of classic forms to the 
full, he turned his chimneys into the semblance of columns. 
His zeal was not always accompanied by knowledge; he some- 
times misapplied his borrowed features ; he too frequently 
regarded a pilaster as in itself an agreeable ornament, without 
troubling to bring it into scale with the building or with his 
other pilasters used elsewhere, and without providing for it 



even a semblance of anything to support. The more ignorant 
masons evolved designs which bore but a distant resemblance 
to the originals which inspired them. All this is true, and it is 
so manifest that one cannot be surprised at the opprobrious 
epithets bestowed upon work of this period by purists of other 

-6.— KiuHY Hall, Nohthami'tonshiuk. South Sidk ok Colut (1570-75). 

schools. Still, in spite of errors and ignorance in the applica- 
tion of ornament, there is an exuberant vitality about the 
buildings of the time which accords with the vitality of its 
literature. Moreover, their character is essentially English : 
an Elizabethan house could no more have been designed by 
Palladio or Du Cerceau or Vricse than a play like those which 
Shakespeare gave us could have been written by one of the 
novelists, essayists, or dramatists of Italy, France and Germany, 
from whom the Englishman, however, did not hesitate to borrow 
some of his material. 

External Ai'I'i:akanci:. 

The courtyard of Kirby Hall is one of the hnest examples 
that is left of the period (Fig, 76), and although pilasters of 
different scale are employed as ornamental features rather 



than as constructional, the whole effect is both dignified and 
picturesque. The mullioned windows have a lively simplicity, 
the large pilasters prevent monotony, and the small detail 
about the central porch contrasts happily with the plainer 

77- — KiRBV Hall, Northamptonshire. West Front (1570-75, parts possibly 1595). 

yS. — Lonoleat, Wiltshire (1567). 

treatment of the main walls. The external facade on the west, 
though not symmetrical, is kept in subjection ; the strong 
horizontal lines of the strings and cornices bind it together, 
and the great chimney stacks are so ordered at regular intervals 
that they alone would give dignity and rhythm to the front 
(Fig. yy). The work on this front is not all of one time, 
though the various parts cannot be separated by many years, 
and it is quite possible that the curved gables were added by 
a somewhat later hand. Sir Christopher Hatton's successor 














may have modified this fagade towards the end of the century, 
when he built the stables, which have now disappeared. 

Kirby is freer in its treatment than Lon^^leat, in Wiltshire, 
which has to submit to a more severe symmetry (Fig. 78). 
The windows here are rather overpowering, but the whole effect 
is restful, owing to the strong horizontal lines, while the pro- 
jecting bays entirely relieve it from monotony. There are no 
gables, and ap- 
parently never 
were, which is 
a some w hat 
unusual cir- 
considering the 
date of its erec- 
tion, 1567. 
Wollaton, near 
(Plate XXV 1 1.) 
bears some re- 
semblance to 
Longleat in its 
detail, but it is 
far more fan- 
tastic in its 
treatment, and 
its plan places 
it in a category 
almost by itself. 
It cannot be 
called a typical 
house either in 

its arrangement or its design, although from its striking appear- 
ance and excellent state of preservation it is frequently 
quoted as such. Its plan shows a central hall, surrounded by 
a range of rooms, with a projecting pavilion or tower at each of 
the four corners (Fig. 79). The general effect is undoubtedly 
impressive, but the ornament is overloaded, and shows a too 
careful study of extravagant Dutch models. The work, how- 
ever, and the design are those of well-instructed masons, 
familiar with the features they were handling. Wollaton is 

-Woi.LATON Uai.i., Nottingham.shm<k. or PkINCII'AI, 
Fi.ooK (1580-88). 



5. Armoury. 



6, 6. Bedrooms 



7. Uoudoir. 



8. Study. 

9. Small Drawing-room. 



another instance of combining a central hall with a central 
doorway. The present flight of steps inside the front door, 
together with the doors in the long sides of the hall immediately 
opposite, is comparatively modern. The original approach, 
after entering the front door, was up a flight of steps to the 
right, at the top of which, by turning to the left (as at Fountains 
Hall), the screens were gained, and the hall was entered in the 
usual way. 

At Burghley House we revert to a simpler treatment. The 
main walls are of plain masonry pierced with windows, and 
divided bv the usual horizontal cornices (Plate XXYHI.)- 

-Charlton House, Wiltshire (1607). 

Diversity is obtained by projecting turrets, lofty bay windows, 
and the boldly-curved entrance porch on the north front. 
There are no gables, the skyline being broken by the turrets, 
the chimneys, and the ornamental parapet. It is, perhaps, an 
exaggeration to say there are no gables, but there are none in 
the later part built between 1575 and 1587. The great hall 
has gables, but that was built some years earlier. 

At Charlton, in Wiltshire (Fig. 80), there is an example of 
the open arcade, which became rather fashionable, but which 
later generations have, in many houses, found unsuitable to 
our climate, and of which the arches have in consequence been 
filled up. The gables here are ornamented with a kind of 
filigree, which is more curious than beautiful. At Aston Hall, 

(V r 

y^ < 

. as 





near Birmingham, the south front presents another instance of 
an open arcade (Fig. 8i), and a good deal of picturesqueness 
is imparted by the broken outline of the gables. Corsham 
Court, in Wiltshire, shows a more restrained treatment 
(Fig. 82). The animated effect is obtained by a number of 
plain gables, and by square projecting windows crowned with 
flat pediments, the whole bound together with conspicuous 
horizontal strings. At Kentwell Hall, in Suffolk, the tligni- 
fied effect is produced by the combination of two turrets 

81. — Aston Ham,, Wakwickshiui:. South Front (161^-35). 

with the front gables, b\- projecting windows carried up the 
whole height of the building, and b}- massive chimne\-stacks 
(Fig. 8j)- The approach is still on the axial line, although 
the present low wall is but a poor substitute for the usual 
enclosure ; but in many of the examples cited the general 
effect is decidedly impoverished by the disappearance of the 
outer courts. 

Coming now to somewhat smaller hcjuses, we find the same 
simple materials relied upon, and producing equally good effects. 
In the ruins of the old Hall at Exton, in Rutland (Plate XXIX.), 
the front facade shows curved gables separated by a length of 



^L t 

82. — CoRSHAM Court, Wiltshire (1582). 

pierced parapet, and the side has three straight f^ables close 
together, with a huge stack of chimneys placed irregularly 
against them. The Manor House at Glinton, in Northampton- 
shire (Plate XXIX,), is even simpler ; nevertheless, its curved 
gables, carefully wrought chimneys, and projecting porch give 
it a considerable amount of character. It is not on record 
when either of these houses was built, but Exton Hall was 

83. — Kentwkll Hall, Suffolk. 

probably the work of John, Lord Harrington of Exton, the 
tutor of the Princess Elizabeth, only daughter of James I. 
There is nothing left inside the house, which was burnt down 
in 1810, but enough of the exterior remains to show that, like 
most manor houses in the district, it must have been a fine 
place in its palmy days. In the church at Exton are a number 

Plate XXIX. 

ExTON Old Hall, Rutland 



of exceptionally good monuments of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, commemorating the Harringtons and their 
descendants (see Fig. 6): The manor of Glinton was granted 
to the Dean and Chapter of Peterborough at the dissolution of 
the monasteries, and so remained till long after the house was 
built, which may therefore have been used as a country residence 
for the Dean. At Cheney Court, near Bath (Fig. 84), another 
house without a history, the treatment is quite simple, con- 
sisting of nothing more than three evenly placed gables along 
the side, and two others, in combination with large chimney- 



stacks, along the end. The reason for the sudden jumping up 
of the strings in the right-hand gable of the side is not apparent ; 
but as a matter of fact, at the present time that part of the 
house is occupied by one tenant, while the remainder is let to 
another. This type of manor house, with its extremely quiet 
handling of gables, chimneys, and mullioned windows, is common 
all over the country, and so far as its exterior is concerned, it 
owes little besides its symmetrical disposition to the Italian 
spirit. An extra touch is given to the doorway here (Fig. 68), 
and the internal fittings show the foreign influence, but other- 
wise it is entirely a native production. The same may be said 


-Manok 1 Imi >i 


of Cold Ashton (Fig. 85), another house in the neighbourhood 

of Bath, but 
here the sym- 
metrical treat- 
ment is more 
marked, as will 
be seen by look- 
ing at the plan 
(Fig. 86), and 
the chimne3'S 
are gathered 
into two groups 
which serve the 
whole* house. 
This is an in- 
teresting ex- 
ample of the 

smaller kind of manor house, and it has been subjected to 

very few alterations. Its 

history is not recorded, but 

it was evidently built by one 

of the numerous squires of 

the time, who put his arms 

over the gateway on the road 

side (see Fig. 58). Judging 

bN'the two doorways remain- 
ing in the screen on the 

left of the central passage, 

one of which now leads into 

a pantry, the hall has been 

shortened by the space re- 
quired for the pantry, but 

except for this alteration the 

plan seems to indicate the 

original arrangement, in- 
cluding that of the front 

garden, with its gateway and 

circular steps, its paved 

walk, and the flight of steps 

leading to the terrace in front of the house. The external 

detail throughout is of the simplest, but there is a good 


86. — Manor Holsk, Cold Ashton, Gi-oltestkr- 
SHiRE. Grolni) Plan. 



ceiling in one of the parlours, and some of the woodwork is 
of unusual elaboration. The character of the work points to 
the early part of the seventeenth century as the date of erection. 
In these simpler examples the windows do not occupy nearly 
so large a proportion of the wall space as they do in the more 
ambitious houses. 

An interesting adaptation of the symmetrical arrangement 
of the forecourt and lodges is to be seen at Bolsover Castle 
(Figs. 87, 88), where the square house has been built on 

87.— BoLsovEK Castle, Deruvshirk (1613). 

the site of the ancient keep, which no doubt largely con- 
trolled its size. There are no gables, all the roofs being flat ; 
that over the house itself is approached by a staircase in a 
domed turret, and was intended as a place of resort. The 
usual picturesquencss of outline is obtained by various turrets 
and chimneys. In the illustration the two chambers in the 
sides of the courtyard are hidden behind those which form the 
entrance to it. It is not easy to say to what use these chambers 
were to be put. They are all furnished with iircplaces, most of 
which are carefully wrought, as though for the delight of the 
owner rather than of his retainers. The house itself is full of 
R.A. H 



interest ; all the rooms on the basement and principal floor are 
vaulted, and the vaulting ribs and corbels are managed with 
such care as was seldom bestowed upon those features even in 
the days of stone vaulting. This method of construction was 
rapidly going out of fashion, most of the houses of the sixteenth 
century having floors of joists and boards, the underside being 
ceiled in the early part of the century with wood, and in the 

latter with plaster. But at 
Bolsover, as late as 1613, we 
have stone vaulting beautifully 
wrought. There is a large 
amount of good panelling also 
left, and the chimney-pieces are 
unrivalled in any house of the 
time for their beauty and variety. 
Some of these will be illustrated 
when that subject comes to be 
dealt with. This part of Bolsover 
Castle, although so carefully 
built and embellished, is but 
a small portion of the whole 
scheme. There was an immense 
gallery in close proximity, which, 
however, has fallen to ruin. It 
is in a style somewhat later 
than its smaller neighbour, with 
gigantic doorways and unwieldy 
mouldings, and forms a link 
between Jacobean work and the 
more fully developed classic 
treatment of the close of the 
seventeenth century. 
At Condover, in Shropshire (Fig. 89), an agreeable variety 
of treatment is introduced on the garden front by contriving to 
get a range of low rooms over the open arcade, the heads of 
he windows being at the same level as those of the principal 
rooms. The central gable on the same face is occupied by a 
bay window, which starts from corbels over the centre arch of 
the arcade and is carried up to the topmost storey. Variations 
like these serve to relieve the monotony which is sometimes to 
be found in the symmetrical houses of the period. 

'. — Bolsover Castle, Derbyshire. 
Ground Plan (1613). 

1. Porch. 3. Pillar-room. 

2. Hall. 4. Main Staircase. 

5. Small Staircase. 



The amount of detail bestowed upon these houses varied 
according to their locahty and the materials at hand. In York- 
shire, Lancashire, and Derbyshire, where the stone is hard, 
great simplicity is the rule. The entrance doorway usually 
received some attention, and the gables often had finials, but 
otherwise the work was of the plainest description. The roofs 
were generally of flatter pitch than in less boisterous districts, 
and the whole house gives the impression of rough sturdiness 
quite in keeping 

with the charac- ; 

ter of the owners. 
Compared with 
shire, as exempli- 
fied at Kir by, 
Rushton, or Ape- 
thorpe ; in Hamp- 
shire at Brams- 
hill ; in Sussex 
at Cowdray ; or 
in Somerset at 
Montacute, the 
work in the north 
is severe and 
wanting in detail. 
Hut it has its 
own charm, just 
as the rocky 
"edges" of Derby- 
shire, and its wild, 
tors, with their memories of prehistoric tribes perciicd upon 
their bleak summits, have a grim fascination not less powerful 
than that which hangs over the forest districts further south, 
where ancient oaks, so old as to retain little beyond their huge 
trunks, call to mind the curious and cruel laws which once 
protected the animals that lived beneath their shade. Haddon 
Hall is a large house, and was the home of one of the first 
families of the county, but its stonew(jrk is comparatively 
plain. Hoghton Tower, in Lancasiiire, is another large house, 

H 2 


-CoNDOVKR IIai.i., SmkoI'.shiuk. 
Tkont (151J.S). 

Tmh (Iahdkn 



but the detail is even simpler than at Haddon. Clegg Hall, 
near Rochdale (Fig. 90), is a good example of a Lancashire 
house of medium size, except that, compared with others 
to be found on the wolds and in the dales of that part of the 
country, it is unusually lofty. Mount Grace Priory, in York- 
shire (Plate XXX.), is of a more usual type, but even here 
there is rather greater liveliness than generally distinguishes 
the Yorkshire manor house ; the windows are larger, and the 
dormers are of steeper pitch than is common. Oakwell Hall, 
East Ardsley and Swinsty Old Halls are good examples 

90. — Clegg Hall, Lancashire. 

of their kind, with flat-pitched roofs, plain gables, and 
windows of many small lights. The courtyard at Ingelby 
Manor (Fig. 91) has an open arcade with some amount of 
detail about it, but the effect is grim and chilly, and serves to 
illustrate the mistake of transferring a child of the Italian sun 
to the bleak regions of Yorkshire. In some parts of Lancashire, 
in Cheshire, Staffordshire and Worcestershire, and generally in 
the west, timber was much employed. The " black-and-white," 
or *' magpie," or " post-and-pan " work, as it is variously called, 
has much charm about it, and appeals keenly to lovers of 
the picturesque. The contrast between the dark framework 



and the light-coloured plaster, together with the variety of line 
consequent upon the constructional necessities of the framework 
itself, insure a lively result; and when the straight lines of the 
greater part of the framing are relieved by the introduction of 
curved braces or more fanciful panels in the gables, the com- 
bination is very attractive. The effect is often enhanced by 
dainty little bits of detail in the wood finials and pendants and 
verge-boards, but even without these aids the texture of the 
wood becomes so beautiful through age and weather as hardly 


to require the help of a chisel. One example, Moreton Old 
Hall, has already been mentioned (Plates XV., XVI.) ; Speke 
Hall, in Lancashire, near the banks of the Mersey, is another 
(Plate XXXI.), and it has at the entrance a certain amount of 
stonework which adds considerably to the interest of the house. 
There is a fine example at BramaH Hall, near Stockport ; a 
plainer one at Pitchford Hall, in Shropshire ; while, among 
others, may be mentioned the Market-house at Ledbury and the 
Grange at Leominster, both in Herefordshire. Some examples, 
although not so many, are to be found in the southern counties ; 
but all through Kent, Surrey, Sussex and Hampshire the usual 



treatment of cottages and small houses was to han<^ them with 
weather-tiling. The ground floor was generally of brick, the 
upper one was tile-hung : there was nearly always a good 
chimney, sometimes rising out of the roof, but often carried on 
a massive base which was continued down to the ground. The 
rich colours which come to these bricks and tiles with age tend 
to spoil those who live in their midst, and to make them look 
with a somewhat dull eye upon the quieter tones prevalent in 
stone districts. Examples of half-timber or " magpie " work, 

however, are not 
wanting amid the 
tile and brick, and 
one of the most 
elaborate is to be 
seen at May held, 
in Sussex (Fig.92), 
but it is far behind 
similar work in 
Cheshire and 
Lancashire in 
richness of detail. 
In the eastern 
counties, as in the 
southern, brick is 
the chief material, 
but here, too, 
plaster played an 
important part in 
clothing the con- 
struction. In the 
west all the detail 
was put into the wood ; in the east it was put into the 
plaster, and there are many examples still left of elaborate 
modelling in plaster to be found upon houses and cottages in 
Essex and Suffolk. Cut flint was also largely emplo}ed for 
walls, and was used in combination with stone to produce 
highly-ornamental designs ; but its employment seems to have 
largely died out with the Gothic forms in which it was so suc- 
cessfully manipulated. The brickwork, which in the early part 
of the century was very rich and elaborate, became much 
plainer towards its close, and indeed the terra-cotta and the 

92. — House at Mavkield, Sussex. 



wonderful chimney-shafts of Henry VIII.'s time are hardly to 
be found in the work of succeeding reigns. It is not in brick- 
work that we must look for Elizabethan detail, but rather in 
the easily-worked stone which underlies the central district of 
England from Devon and Somerset in a north-easterly direction 
to Rutland and Lincoln. 


It has already been said that an Elizabethan house depends 
for its picturesqueness chiefly upon its windows, gables, and 

<J3. -CovvDK.w ll<JLsi:. SisM-x. Fakt dk Colkt. 

chimneys. The mullioned and transomed window is indeed 
one of the characteristic features of the Elizabethan style, the 
openings being all rectangular. Already during the prevalence of 
Gothic forms the vertical spaces formed by the mullions of the 
windows had been divided horizontally by transoms, but this 
treatment was rather the exception than the rule. In Tudor times 
the windows were usually small, sometimes consisting only of 
one light, but often of two or even three, and occasionally being 
two tiers in height. The lights almost always had flat-pointed 
heads. The small size resulted from the old wish to have a 


defensible house, but as the need for such precaution lessened, 
the lights increased in number; the desire for well-lighted rooms 
led to still further extension and to doing away with the pointed 
heads in favour of straight ones. The gradual changes in the 
form of windows is well seen in the courtyard at Cowdray 
(Fig. 93). The window on the extreme right of the illus- 
tration, with its pointed arch and traceried lights, is Gothic; 

next to it comes 
a Tudor bay win- 
dow, made up 
of a number of 
flat-pointed lights, 
which there was 
no need to restrict 
in this case, be- 
cause the window 
looked into the 
court. To the 
left are two bays 
of Elizabeth's 
time, with rect- 
angular lights 
three rows in 
height and many 
in width. At 
Harrington Court 
(Plate XXXII.) 
may be seen a 
more usual ex- 
ample of Tudor 
windows, as well 

f)4. — HOGHTON TOWKK, LANCASHIKt;. BaV OK HaI.I.. ^^ thp twisted 

finials of which the early sixteenth centur}- was so fond. 
Another kind of treatment is occasionally to be found, in 
which brackets are introduced in the upper lights, springing 
from the mullions and supporting the horizontal head. One 
version of this method is to be seen at Layer Marney in the 
windows over the archway (Plate XIII.), and another at Lacock 
Abbey (Plate XXXVI.). In the latter window should also be 
noticed the circle introduced at the crossing of the centre 
mullion and transom, which resembles the treatment adopted 

Plate XXXII. 

A^^^^ "" 

HAkRiNcrrox court, soMicksryr. (tudou.) 


in the screen at King's College Chapel (Plate VIII.). The 
date of Layer Marney may be put at 1520, Lacock Abbey at 
about 1540, and the screen at 1535. The greatest develop- 
ment of windows was, however, to be found in the bay. 
The bay window is one of the most important features in 
the architecture of the time. English designers had always 
been fond of bay windows : they put them to the dais of 
their halls in quite early times, and there are many examples 
of small bays being 
corbelled out on 
an upper floor, 
where the exigen- 
cies of the ground 
plan did not per- 
mit of their start- 
ing from the 
ground. But as 
a rule these early 
bays were only one 
storey in height : 
as time went on, 
however, t h e \ 
grew to two 
storeys, and then 
to as many as the 
main building it- 
self had. I^^rom 
being an adjunct 
they became a 
dominating fea- 
ture, and most of 
the large houses of 
the time derive variety of outline and rh}thm of composition 
from their bay windows. Hoghton Tower, in Lancashire 
(Fig. 94), has a fine bay at the end of the hall. It is only one 
storey high, but that storey is the full height of the building 
in that part. The sill is brought down lower than those of the 
other windows in order to enable the occupants of the dais to 
look out into the court. At Astley Hall, also in Lancashire 
(Plate XXXIII,), the two bays are the dominating feature of the 
front; indeed, the whole architectural interest of this side of the 

95. — HUKION A(,NKS, VoKKSlllKK (l6o2— 1(). 


house lies in the management of the windows, for the doorway, 
flanked by double columns which lend their united strength to 
supporting a peaceable lion, is hardly worth attention. The 
long range of windows which reaches continuously from one end 
of the building to the other forms a striking feature, but must 
be a matter of much concern to the housewife who has to drape 
them on the inside, and to consider the claims of her carpet 

on sunny days. 

At Burton Agnes 
the grouping of a cir- 
cular bay in the gable 
with an octagonal one 
just round the corner 
(Fig. 95) is very effec- 
tive pictorially, and 
makes an interesting 
plan. The circular 
bays at Li 1 ford, in 
Northamptonshire, set 
within the curved 
gables, produce a 
pleasing combination 
(Plate XXXIV.) ; but 
of all circular bays the 
palm must be assigned 
to the great twin 
bays at Kirby (Plate 
XXXIII.). It was not 
only in important 
houses that these strik- 
ingfeatures were intro- 
duced ; they are to be 
found in all kinds of dwellings, and frequently impart interest 
to small and insignificant cottages, whether of stone, as at 
Bourton-on-the-Water (Fig. g6), or of wood and stucco, as at 
Steventon, in Berkshire (Pig. 97). In both these examples 
much of the pleasant effect is derived from the small size of 
the windows and the proportionately large space of plain wall 
between them ; but ths same effect can hardly be obtained 
in the present day, because the rooms have to be higher, 
and toleration is seldom accorded, either by private taste or 

96. — HoLSH AT Bourton-on-thk-Watkk, 


Plate XXXIII, 

AsTLEY Hall, Lancashire. 


Plate XXXIV', 




CURVED (;abi.k.s. (1635). 



public regulations, to windows which start a long way from 
the floor and end a long way from the ceiling. 

There was no great variety in the mouldings of the stone- 
work. Several sec- 
tions of jambs and 
mullions are shown on 
Fig. 98, of which 
No. I was most fre- 
quently used in Eliza- 
bethan and Jacobean 
work. The jambs and 
p r i n c i p a 1 m u 1 1 i o n s 
had an outer member, 
slightly splayed, 
which formed a frame 
within which the sub- 
sidiary mullions and 
the transoms were 
enclosed, as may be 
seen by referring to 
Figs. 71, 96, and 
103. Sometimes this 
outer member was 
moulded instead of 
splayed, as shown in 
No. 2 (Fig. 98), and 
occasionally an extra 
member was intro- 
duce d c 1 o s e t o t h e 
glazing line, as shown 
in No. 3. These 
three examples are all 
varieties of the same 
type. No. 4 shows a 
type with a hollow 
moulding, which was 
prevalent in Tudor 
work, as it had been previouslv in (iotliic : and it remained 
in use, along with the plain splayed mullion, up to the time 
of the sash-window. Although it preceded tiic type No. i, 
and might therefore be considered to indicate an earlier 

97..-C()TrA(;K at Si i\ in ion, Hkkksiiikk. 



date, it is not by any means a safe guide, inasmuch as both 
forms were in use at the same time. No. i, however, was 
not used before the middle of the sixteenth century, and 
may be taken as a fairly safe indication of a date subsequent to 
that time. No. 5 shows a sunk splay, and was occasionally 

98. — Section of Window Jambs and Mullions. 

used, but it is not frequently met with. The label shown on 
No. 4 was used in late Gothic work, and survived in some 
instances as long as the mullioned windows themselves ; but 
in the more ambitious designs its place was taken by the lower 
member of a cornice founded on classic models. No. 6 is 

an example of a quite 

different type. In all the 
others, the windows were 
of the ordinary mullioned 
type, with a label (or 
cornice) over them. In 
No. 6 not only does the 
shape of the mullion follow 
a new idea, but the whole 
of the mouldings outside 
of it are carried round 
the head and jambs of the 
window to form a regular architrave : the effect can be seen 
in the windows at Wollaton, in Fig. 106. As this architrave 
projected beyond the face of the wall, the window-sill was 
brought forward to receive it, as shown on Fig. 99. The 
projecting sill is supported at each end by a quaint corbel, 
and the space between the corbels is filled by a projecting 
panel fashioned like a piece of fancifully-shaped leather nailed 
on to the wall, and having some of its cut ends curled up. 


99.— Window-sill at Wollaton Hall 


This treatment of windows involved a considerable amount of 
labour and expense, and accordingly was not often adopter] ; 
but the use of the architrave became general during the 
seventeenth centur}', after the mullioned window had given 
way to sashes. 







The gable is one of the characteristic features of the period. 
As a rule it was of steep pitch — indeed, in many thatched 
barns and cottages the apex is very acute (Fig. loo). In such 
cases the cottages generally had attic-rooms in the roof, which 
were lighted by dormer windows, over which the thatch was 

worked in such 
' ^ ^ ! a way that they 

appeared to be 
a growth out the 
main roof rather 
than an extra- 
neous win dow 
applied to it. In 
stone and brick 
houses the gable 
wall rose above 
the roof, and was 
coped with stone 
to prevent the 
wet penetrating 
into it. The 
coping rested at 
the bottom on a 
kneeler, which projected sufficiently to accommodate itself to the 
projection of the eaves, and at the apex it was usually crowned 
by a finial. A considerable amount of variety was introduced into 
the design of the kneelers and finials, and many a small house 
and cottage is redeemed from insignificance by the possession of 




one or two of these features {Fig. loi). Even where there was no 
finial, the mere fact of the apex of the coping projecting above the 
hne of the ridge produced a point that showed against the sky, 

loi. — Stone Finials and Kneelers. 

and helped towards the general picturesqueness of effect. In 
some of the more important houses the finials were worked 

102. — Manok House, 1-insiock, Oxi okdshikk. 

with greater elaboration, and were placed not only on the apex 
of the gable but on the kneelers at its foot (see Fig. 108, and 
the dormer on Fig. 113; also Plate XXX.). The effect of 
plain gables contrasted with those having simple finials is 



shown on Plate XXXV., while examples of larger and more 
important finials may be seen at Kirby and Rushton (Figs. 107, 

113), the prevailing forms 
being some variety of the 

The use of simple gables 
or their combination with 
dormer windows and 
chimneys, all without 
elaborate detail, is quite 
sufficient to impart in- 
terest to a building, 
which otherwise would 
have little claim to atten- 
tion. Examples of these 
unpretentious houses are 
to be met with in every 
county ; one or two are 
illustrated here from Fin- 
stock, in Oxfordshire 
(Fig. 102), Broadway, in 
Worcestershire (Plate 
XXXV.), and Holms- 
hurst, in Sussex (Plate 
XXXV.). There is very 
little conscious effort 
about the design of either 
of these, beyond the in- 
troduction of a certain 
amount of symmetry. At 
Finstock Manor House 
there is a range of three 
equal gables occupying 
most of the front, and 
the door is in the centre. 
At Tudor House, Broad- 
way, there are three 
gables, but they are de- 
tached from each other, and the middle one is rather larger 
than its neighbours ; a bay window of two storeys occupies 
the centre of the front, and the very plainly treated door is 

.- — 1 



r ' ^" ' 











at one end. The house at Holmshurst is, hke most of those 
in the Weald, built of brick : it has stone windows, but very 
little detail, its effect depending upon the two gables, each 
flanked with a large chimney-stack. 

The style which was prevalent at the end of the sixteenth 
century lingered on far into the seventeenth in buildings that 
were not subject to the passing fashion : indeed, the treatment 
was hardly adopted consciously, but was rather the obvious 
and natural way of building, otherwise it would not have 

104. —Cottage at Trkkton, nkak Shkiiikld. 

been applied to such cottages as that at Rothwell (Fig. 103) 
and Treeton, near Sheffield (Fig. 104). 

In houses which were constructed of timber and plaster 
it was impossible to carry up the gables above the roof; the 
method of building did not admit of it, and there would have 
been no adequate means of covering them from the weather. 
They were finished, therefore, with projecting verge-boards, 
which served to protect the surface of the walls, and which 
were often carved or cut and moulded. A simple instance 
applied to a cottage is to be found at Steventon (Fig. 105), but 
there are plenty to be seen in different parts of the country, 
particularly in the west. 

In the more important houses the gables were not infrequently 
R.A. I 


curved, especially in later times, that is to say, the curved gable 
is more frequent in Jacobean work than in Elizabethan. This 
idea no doubt came from the Low Countries, where it was very 
extensively adopted, but the extravagant and fantastic curves 
which the Dutchman loved were much simplified by his 
English imitator. Some of the more ambitious efforts, such 
as Wollaton, went near in their elaborate strap-work to rival 
the original models. A study of one of the corner pavilions 

(Fig. 1 06) will show 
how, not only in the 
gables but in the whole 
treatment, the foreign 
influence is predomi- 
nant. The simplicity 
of the native type is 
entirely wanting. 
There are no plain sur- 
faces of any extent; the 
columns are broken by 
a projecting band ; the 
pedestals on which 
they stand are adorned 
with panels of double 
projection ; not only 
are the corner piers of 
the parapet crowned 
with an obelisk, but 
the pediment at the 
top of each gable 
carries a small statue 
on a pedestal : every- 
thing is done to add to the picturesqueness and richness of 
effect. Nevertheless, through all the ornament with which the 
design is overloaded, its main ideas are plainly visible : the 
large and simple windows, the emphasizing of the angles, the 
gables of studiously irregular outline. In some Dutch and 
German work the designers seemed to lose sight of their 
purpose in the exuberance of their ornament, but here it is not 
so. It will be seen that the circular niches on the side faces 
are filled with busts, although the vertical niches between the 
pilasters are empty. The busts, so far as they are named or 

105. — CoTTAG^; AT Stkventon, Berkshire. 


can be identified, 
are those of classic 
personages — Plato, 
Aristoteles, Ver- 
gilius — and are 
said to have been 
brought over from 

The west front of 
Kirby (Fig. 107) 
offers a great con- 
trast to Wollaton. 
Here everything up 
as high as the para- 
pet is as simple as 
it can well be; there 
are no pilasters, no 
niches, no strap- 
work panels. The 
windows and the 
cornices which 
make the circuit of 
the building are the 
only architectural 
features. The 
gables have the 
strap-work, but it 
is of a simpler form 
than that at Wolla- 
ton : the irregularity 
of their outlme, 
combined with the 
tapering obelisks, 
some of which have 
open stone bows at 
the bottom, some- 
thing after the 
fashion of a jug 
handle, imparts the 
necessary pictur- 
esqueness, without 


Onk ok Coknkk Towkks (is^iS). 

I 2 



having recourse to the expensive devices employed at Wollaton. 
The latter house was built between the years 1580 and 1588, 
and the gables may therefore be taken as dating from 1588 : 
the date of the west front of Kirby is not recorded, but 
from the character of the work it may very well have been 
subsequent to the main building operations in 1570 — 75, and, 
as already stated, these gables were not improbably added 
towards the close of the sixteenth century. One curious point 
about this front is the care which was taken to make the quoins 
perfectly regular in size : in some cases where the quoin stone 

KiKiiV Hall, Xukihami'Tonshikl. 1'akt of \\lst rKoNx u'Ossibly 1595). 

was larger than the regulation size, the overplus was slightly 
sunk, and then scored with false joint-lines to match those of 
the adjacent rubble. 

There was a simpler type of curved gable which was freely 
used, as in the courtyard at Rushton (Fig. io8), and it was 
sometimes combined with steps, as at Apethorpe (Fig. 109), 
the result being picturesque without being fussy. The date 
of the example at Apethorpe is 1623 — 24, and that at Rushton 
1627. The curve, instead of being ogee-shaped as in these 
instances, was sometimes composed of two curves of similar 
form, with a square shoulder between them, like those at 
Blickling (Plate XXXVII.), or the sweep of the ogee was broken 



108. — Gable in Court, Rushton, 
Northamptonshire (1627). 

by the introduction of a vertical line, such as may be seen in 
the gables at Lilford (Plate XXXIV.). Further varieties 
occur at Montacute (Fig. 48), 
Stanway (Plate XXII.), and West- 
wood (Plate XXI 1 1.). 


The gables and the dormer windows 
in the larger houses were often con- 
nected by a parapet, broken at inter- 
vals by a shallow pilaster carried up 
to form the base of a finial or the 
seat for some heraldic animal. Some- 
times the parapet was solid, as at 
Apethorpe (Fig. log), Doddington 
(Plate XXI.), and the courtyard 
at Kirby (Fig. 76) ; sometimes it 
was formed of a series of arches, as at Exton (Fig. no, and 
Plate XXIX.), and at Hambleton (Fig. 71) ; sometimes of 

stone panels pierced 
with a pattern, as 
at Bramshill (Fig. 
Ill) and Audley 
End (Fig. 112); and 
sometimes of stone 
balusters, of which 
Rushton Hall offers 
one example (Fig. 
iij) and Wollaton 
Hall (Plate XX VI I.) 
another. There 
was a considerable 
amount of variety, 
according to the 
ability of the mason 
^ „ . .. to design and of 

log.— Gable in Court, Ai'kthori'e, Northami-tonshire " 

(1623—24). the owner to pay. 

The effect of the pierced panels carried along a considerable 
length of parapet is very rich and lace-like. The stone 
balusters were occasionally of very meagre proportion, and 





used with too sparing 
a hand, but at Rush- 
ton this is not felt 
to be the case. The 

:^ parapet to the main 
roofs here is more 
satisfactory than the 
rather confused orna- 
ment which serves a 

^ similar purpose for the 
bay. This gable also 
affords a good ex- 

110. — ExTON Old Hall, Rutland. Stone Parapet. amolc of the manner 

in which the lights of the mullioned windows were stepped up 

III. — Bramshill, Hampshirk. Stone Parapet. 

112. — AuDLEV End, Essex. Stone Parapet. 

so as to follow roughly the slope of the roof. In one or two 
houses (Castle Ashby in Northamptonshire, and Temple 



Newsam in Yorkshire) the parapets are formed of stone letters 
forming a series of legends which make, more or less, the 
circuit of the house. 


The chimneys were always dealt with boldly. In many cases, 
as already said, they were massed into great stacks at intervals 
along the walls, 
and made the 
dominating fea- 
tures of the whole 
design. Wher- 
ever they occur- 
red their presence 
was frankly ac- 
cepted, and, as a 
rule, much skill 
and ingenuity 
were bestowed 
upon them. In 
later centuries 
chimneys appear 
to have become a 
source of con- 
siderable annoy- 
ance to architec- 
tural designers, 
and a great deal 
of misapplied in- 
genuity was ex- 
pended in trying 
to conceal their 
existence, owing 
to the idea that 
they interfered 
with the purity of 
classic fa9ades. 
But in the early days of the introduction of classic features, 
the problem of making chimneys harmonize with the rest of 
the building seems to have been a source of delight instead 
of annoyance. 

-Ki:siiroN IlALr., N'uk imami' hjnshiki;. 

GaULK on KaST rKONT (1627). 



The j:(eneral use of chimneys was at this time rather a 
novelty. So late as the time of Henry VII., in the new palace 
called Richmond Court, built to replace an older structure 
destroyed by fire in 1498, the great hall was warmed by a fire 
in the middle of the floor with a lantern in the roof over it. 

There is a description of the 
Court in the return of the 
Commissioners of Parlia- 
ment made in 1649, which 
is interesting not only as 
mentioning the fire, but as 
bearing out what has already 
been said of the hall of a 
large house. The higher 
storey, they say,* "contains 
one fayr and large room 10.0 
feet in length and 40 in 
breadth, called the Great 
Hall. This room hath a 
screen at the lower end 
thereof, over which is a little 
gallery, and a fayr foot-pace 
in the higher end thereof 

[the dais] ; the pavement is 
square tile, and it is very 
well lighted and seeled [i.e., 
panelled with wood], and 
adorned with eleven statues 
in the sides thereof; in the 
midst a brick hearth for a 
charcoal fire, having a large 
lanthorn in the roof of the 
hall fitted for that purpose, 
turreted and covered with 
lead." But early in the sixteenth century chimneys came 
into general use, and they are one of the most characteristic 
features of a Tudor house. They were generally built of 
moulded brick, and were fashioned in elaborate and com- 
plicated ways. An illustration from Droitwich is given in 
Fig. 114, in which the moulded bases stand on panelled 

* Nichols' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, Vol. I. (1566). 

114. — Chimney at Dkoitwich, 


pedestals ; the shafts also are moulded, each after a different 

115. — Brick Chimney from 


116. — 15RICK Chimney from 
Bardwki.l Manor House, Slkfoi.k. 

117. — Chimney at Tom,er Fkatrum, 

118.— Chimney at Kirmy Hai.i., 
Northampton SHI KE. 

manner, and the caps are crowned witli a hattlemented 
ornament. Some of the simpler forms are illustrated amonj:^ 


the details from Layer Marney (Plate XIII.), also from 
Huddinj^ton Court House, in Worcestershire (Fig. 115), Bard- 
well, in Suffolk (Fig. 116), and a stone example from Toller 
Fratrum, in Dorset (Fig. 117). But far richer specimens are 
to be seen at Compton Winyates (Plate XI.) or at Hengrave 
(Fig. 43), besides many other places. With the death of 
Henry VIII. this elaboration disappeared, and a plainer treat- 
ment prevailed. In some of the more pretentious edifices the 
chimneys were cast into the form of columns, as they were at 
Wollaton (Plate XXVII.) and Burghley (Plate XXVIII.), and 
at Montacute also, where the column carries a kind of stone 
cowl. The columnar form had occasionally been used in 
earlier days ; there was a well-proportioned and excellently 
wrought example at Lacock Abbey (Plate XXXVI.), where 
the shafts were fashioned into fluted columns, and the cap 
took the shape of a short length of classic entablature with 
architrave, frieze, and cornice complete. The columns stood 
upon a pedestal, the face of which was occupied with a panel 
surrounded by strap-work ; and as there seems every reason 
to suppose the work to be part of Sharington's prior to his 
death in 1553, the whole idea and its mode of execution is 
unusually early, strap-work being associated as a rule with a 
period fifteen or twenty years later. The consoles carrying the 
projection of the base are an additional feature, and the whole 
group is carefully designed. The notion, however, of making 
the chimney-flue into a column and taking a short length of 
entablature as a cap is hardly satisfactory, and a more reason- 
able type was employed at Kirby (Fig. 118), while throughout 
the stone district of the Midlands the usual form is that in 
Fig. 119, a form which, with modifications, has lingered on 
even down to the present day. A somewhat ornamental 
variety of the same idea is to be seen at Chipping Campden 
(Fig. 120), and another variation at Drayton House, in North- 
amptonshire (Fig. 121). The quaint triangular chimney of the 
Triangular Lodge at Rushton (Fig. 122) is really the same 
in principle, but its unusual apex and carved panels place 
it in a class by itself. The brick chimneys of Elizabeth's 
time have straight stalks and an oversailing cap of thin bricks, 
occasionally varied with still thinner courses of tiles. The 
profile is nearly always the same, but considerable variety is 
imparted by varying the plan, and by adding square or 

Plate XXXVI. 

Ptan. o t GF)ifTiney s> 

fV — -1 



.y^— ' 

in n a n n n n n n » n n n I n n n n nn nn n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n (1 n n n fi n fi n fi n fmn. iTln n n n n ii n n n n fTff 





119. — Typical Chimney in the 

120. — Chimney at Chipping Campden, 

!#-l^ * 

121. — Chimney at Drayton 

House, Northamptonshire 


III. — Chimnkv at Tkiancilar Lodgk, 
Rushton, Northamptonshire (1595). 



triangular projections to the plain faces of the flues. A 
simple but effective example may be seen at Bean Lodge, 
near Petworth (Fig. 123). More elaborate specimens are 
found at Knole House and Cobham Hall, in Kent ; Blickling 
Hall, in Norfolk (Plate XXXVII.) ; at Moyns Park, in Essex, 
and indeed on almost every brick house of the time. 

Blickling Hall affords examples of many of the features 

which have been de- 
scribed. It has fine 
stacks of chimneys, 
curved gables, and 
pierced parapets over 
the windows; on each 
gable is a dainty little 
statue. The front 
doorway is richly 
embellished, and over 
it are the owner's arms 
set forth with much 
heraldic display. 
Classic features are 
used with moderation 
and restraint ; a cor- 
nice marks the level 
of the firstfloor; other 
cornices crown the 
bay windows ; and 
columns flank the 
archway. But they 
are all used because 
they answered the de- 
signer's purpose, and 

123. — Bean Lodge, Petvvokth, Sussex. . i 11 j 

not because he hoped 
by loading his building with classic features to give it a character 
which, without such help, he was powerless to impart. 

Rain- Water Heads. 

Attention should be drawn to another feature of which nothing 
hitherto has been said, but which was one of the recognized 
means of obtaining effect — namely, the rain-water pipes. These 





necessary adjuncts to a building have ceased to play the 
important part which once they did ; they are still tolerated, 
because they cannot be abolished, but they are only admitted 
grudgingly and of necessity. In the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries a large amount of care was bestowed upon their 
design, and being made of lead they were susceptible of 
interesting treatment. Their use was in the nature of a 
novelty, since up to this time the water from the roofs had 
been allowed to splash on to the ground from projecting 
gargoyles. They very frequently carried either the date or 
the family crest upon them, and were often ornamented with 
pierced work. The examples shown in Figs. 124 — 126 
are from Haddon Hall ; two of them bear the cognizance 
of the Vernon family (the boar's head), and one that of the 
Manners family in addition (the peacock). Haddon passed 
into the possession of Sir John Manners, by his marriage with 
Dorothy Vernon, in the year 1567, and these lead heads must 
be ascribed to a date subsequent to the marriage, otherwise 
they would not bear the peacock of the Manners family. They 
still retain in their ornament some trace of Gothic feeling, but 
the topmost moulding, with the dentils beneath it, is clearly of 
classic derivation. The third head with the cresting of fleur- 
de-lys may well be of rather earlier date, and the work of Sir 
George Vernon, the father of Dorothy. Allied to the last 
example from Haddon is the rain-water head from Sherborne, 
Dorset (Fig, 127), dated 1579, also with a battlemented cresting. 
At Knole, in Kent, is another good example (Fig. 128) with a 
pierced front and two triangular projections ending in a pen- 
dant ; the top is ornamented with a battlemented cresting, now 
mutilated. Another specimen, of somewhat plainer character, 
comes from Bramshill (Fig. 129) ; it is dated 1612, and has its 
outlet towards one end, so as to bring the water horizontally 
along the wall for a short distance in order that the pipe may 
not interfere with some feature in the wall below. At Rushton 
there are some lead heads bearing the date 1627, which depend 
for their effect upon their shape rather than upon their 
decoration, which is practically limited to a very simple treat- 
ment of the cresting. These are two or three examples out of 
a great many that still remain, some of them being even more 
ornamental ; the greater number, however, were more nearly 
allied to the plainer than the richer examples. 



124.— Lead Kain-watkr Head from 
Haddon Hai.i., Deruyshire. 

126. — Lead Rain-water Head from 
Haddon Hall, Derbyshire. 

125. — Lead Rain-water Head from 
Haddon Hall, Derbyshire. 

127. — Pipe Head from Sherborne 

128.— Lead Pipe Head from Knole, Kent. 

129. — Lead Pipe Head from 


Haddon Hall, Derbyshire. Steps to Terrace. 

Clavkrton, Somerset. Terrace Wall 




This is not the place to enter into an elaborate account of 
gardens, but they touch the subject under discussion so far as 
this — that there was a certain amount of architectural design 
bestowed upon them in the shape of terraces, flights of steps, 
balustrades and garden-houses. The view of Montacute shown 
in Fig. 48 gives a good idea of the manner in which the 
house was set off by a formal garden enclosed by stone walls 
and balustrades, which were 
emphasized at the angles by 
garden-houses, and along their 
lengths either by gateways or 
some kind of special object, 
such as the quaint kind of 
temple, which serves no pur- 
pose but to vary the monotony 
of the balustrade. The well- 
known terrace at Haddon is as 
good an example as can be 
found of the fine effect of a 
raised walk approached by a 
broad flight of steps, and pro- 
tected by an arcaded balus- 
trade (Plate XXXV 11 1.). The 
detail is quite simple, there is 
no particular effort visible, 
every thing seems to be there 
because it is wanted, but the 
whole effect is extremely picturesque. At Claverton, near Bath, 
are the remains of a fine house and garden, of which a long 
terrace wall is also illustrated on Plate XXXVIII. Here the 
straight length is broken by the large gate-piers, which rise some 
twelve feet high before tapering off into the universal obelisk. 
Claverton must have been a splendid example of Jacobean work, 
judging by the illustrations in Richcivdsons Elizabethan Archi- 
tecture, but unhappily little of it now remains. At Gayhurst, in 
Buckinghamshire, there are a number of quaint stone piers 
flanking the main approach, set a few yards apart (Fig. 130), the 
space between them being filled in with cut yew hedges. Hedges 
do not enter into the scope of the present work, but they were 

130. — Gayhukst, Buckingham shirk. 
Stonk Pillar in Garden. 



much in vogue, as were also pleached alleys and the green 
shaded walks so much desired by the Noble Gentleman in 
Beaumont and Fletcher's play of that name. With arches in 
walls we have more concern, and have already dealt with them 
in dealing with the approaches to the house ; but an additional 

example from a 
garden at Ling- 
field, in Surrey, is 
illustrated in Fig 
131 ; and another 
from Highlow 
Hall, in Derby- 
shire, on Plate 

The lay-out of a 
late sixteenth cen- 
tury garden was 
tolerably simple, 
the whole being 
treated on a defi- 
nite system, and 
with straight lines. 
The bowling-green 
was an important 
adjunct, and the 
larger houses had 
mounts for pro- 
spect, and also a 
" wilderness " of 
considerable ex- 
tent. The de- 
scription of the 
gardens at None- 
such, given by the 
Commissioners in their survey of April, 1650* (already quoted), 
gives a good idea of the gardens attached to the larger sort of 
houses. The "frontispiece," or approach, was railed with hand- 
some rails and balusters of stone ; at a distance of eight yards 
from the house was the bowling-green, from which a fair and 

* ArchcBologia, Vol. V. p. 429. 

131. — Gateway in Garden, Lingfield, Surrey (1617). 


straight path led along an avenue to the park gate, which (they 
say) being very high, well-built, and placed in a direct line 
opposite to the house, was, in consequence, a good ornament to 
it. On three outward sides of the inner court lay the " Privy 
Garden," surrounded with a brick wall 14 feet high, and cut 
out and divided into various alleys, quarters, and rounds, set 
about with thorn hedges. Adjoining this garden was the 
kitchen garden, also enclosed by a 14 feet wall : on the west 
of this lay the wilderness. In the privy garden was a spiral 
pyramid of marble, set upon a base of similar material, 
" grounded upon a rise of freestone;" and near this there was 
a large marble wash basin, over which stood a marble pelican, 
fed with water through a lead pipe. There were also two 
other marble obelisks, and between them a fountain of white 
marble, set round with six lilac trees, " which trees bear no 
fruit, but only a very pleasant flower." In the highest part 
of the park stood the banqueting-house, a three-storey timber 
building of quadrangular form, enclosed within a brick wall. 
The ground floor was occupied by the hall, the upper storeys 
had respectively three and five rooms, and they were all 
panelled with oak. In each of the four corners of the whole 
house there was a balcony placed for prospect. This is worth 
remembering, for the desire to obtain a prospect is generally 
considered to be of modern growth ; and no doubt until quite 
recently it was necessary to a beautiful view that it should be 
obtained in ease and comfort. The notion of climbing a wild 
mountain for the sake of the view was probably never entertained 
before the beginning of this century. 

There is a good example of the lay-out of a forecourt to a 
small house at Eyam Hall, in Derbyshire, and although tradition 
and the only date to be found about the building (on a spout- 
head) place the erection of the house in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, it looks much earlier, and is charac- 
teristic of the beginning of the century rather than of the end. 
There is very little detail about it ; but the formal disposition 
and the broad and simple treatment combine (with the assist- 
ance of time) to impart a fine and dignified effect. It will be 
seen from the plan (Fig. 133) that the court is nearly scjuare. 
It is entered from the road through a pillared gateway up a 
short flight of semicircular steps ; a broad paved walk leads to 
another flight which lands on to a wide paved terrace extending 

R.A. K 



along the whole front of the house (Plate XXXIX.). Exactly 
opposite the steps is the front door, placed centrally in the main 
face of the house, which is recessed from the faces of the pro- 
jecting wings. At either end of the terrace is a doorway, one 
leading to the kitchen approach, the other to the garden, which 
is reached down another Hight of semicircular steps. The paths 
in the vicinity of the house are straight, and the rise of the 
ground necessitates still more steps, which give access eventually 

132. — Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire. Garden-house. 

to a long, straight walk beneath a south-west wall. Away from 
the house the treatment has lapsed into less formality ; but the 
house itself, together with the court, the terraces, and the flights 
of steps, the whole gay with flowers, makes a very attractive 

The banqueting-house at Nonesuch was, like the other part 
of the house itself, built of timber. So, also, in all probability, 
was the "goodly banqueting-house" which the Lord Admiral 
built for the Queen when she went to his place in the year 
1559 from Hampton Court. It was richly gilded and painted 

Plate XXXIX. 

Gateway at Highlow Hall, near Hathersage, Derbyshire. 

Kyam Hall, Dkkhyshire. Tekkvce Steps. 



(we are told), "that lord having for that end kept a great 
many painters for a good while there in the country." But 
the more usual material was brick or stone, and a fair number 
of examples of such buildings still survive. One of the most 
elaborate is to be seen at Chipping Campden (Fig. 132), in 
Gloucestershire, where the fall of the site enables an under- 
storey to be obtained without being buried in the ground. 
The illustration shows the ground floor only, but there is a 
storey below it approached by a substantial staircase. The 
work is elaborate, and has lasted well in spite of its rather 
unworkmanlike treatment, as for instance in the jointing of 
the stone parapets. The detail is too fanciful, and the building 
is illustrated not so much for the sake of its design, as to show 
how much trouble and expense were lavished upon a structure 
which could only have been used a few times during the year. 
It and its fellow on the opposite side were, however, important 
features in the general lay-out. 

I.33- — 'ivAM Hai.i.. Plan ok Lav-out. 

K 2 



The chief points in the internal arrangement of houses of 
the period have already been explained in the third chapter. 
The hall was the central feature, entered at one end ; next to 
this end was the kitchen; next to the other, or dais end, was 
the parlour. The kitchen and the parlour respectively were 
amplified according to the accommodation required, and in the 
larger houses the amplification entailed one or more courts, 
but the hall remained the centre of the system. The need for 
such great amplification as we find in the larger houses arose 
from the fact that large retinues accompanied great personages 
on their visits to each other, and that there was always the 
chance that the sovereign might have to be entertained upon 
one of the progresses which were undertaken three or four 
times every year. Both Elizabeth and James adopted this 
method of keeping in touch with their subjects, and the}- must 
have become tolerably familiar with their dominions, except, 
perhaps, the extreme outlying parts in the north and west ; 
and so far as James was concerned, he made the acquaintance 
of a good many houses in the north, on his journey from 
Scotland when he came to take possession of the crown. 

Royal Progresses. 

When Queen Elizabeth made her progresses, she was fre- 
quently entertained with elaborate shows, which, presumably, 
must have pleased her, since they occurred so often, but which 
afford tedious reading to the modern inquirer. They were 
usually cast in an allegorical form, and had more or less 
dramatic action. They took place in the daytime and in the 
open air : it can hardly be said that they were performed, for 
the thread of the plot was so thin, and the stage of operations 
so large, that the whole effect must have appeared rather 


fortuitous, and wanting in cohesion. At night time and in 
one of the great halls, either of a city, a college, or a great 
house, there were other performances, in which the interest 
was more concentrated, and the characters more varied ; these 
were called plays, of which a great number were performed, 
written by all sorts of people, and all affording (apparently) 
equal pleasure to the onlookers. The majority of these pieces 
have faded into oblivion, but a certain number have survived, and 
go to form much of what we know as the Elizabethan drama. 

But it is with the entertainments provided in the daytime 
that we are more particularly concerned : they were of an 
ephemeral nature, and have not, like many of the plays, passed 
into the literature of the country : and our concern with them 
lies in the form in which they were cast and the spirit which 
animated them. When Elizabeth made her passage through 
the city of London to Westminster the day before her corona- 
tion — that is, on January 13th, 1558— the whole journey was 
interspersed with " pageants," as they were called.* These 
consisted of triumphal arches of various designs, upon which 
living allegorical figures were placed : one represented the 
Queen's immediate ancestors : another four virtues treading 
down four contrary vices ; another the eight beatitudes ; on 
another were Time and Truth his daughter ; and so forth. 
Each of these personages, says the account, according to their 
proper names and properties, had not only their names in plain 
and perfect writing set upon their breasts easily to be read of 
all, but also each of them was aptly and properly apparelled, 
so that his apparel and name did agree to express the same 
person that in title he represented. As each pageant was 
reached, there stepped forth a "child" on to some prominent 
part of it, who recited a number of verses explanatory of the 
device, and a copy of these verses was affixed in a tablet upon 
the pageant, balanced by another bearing a Latin version 
of the same lines. Besides these, it says, every void place in 
the pageant was furnished with sentences touching the matter 
and ground of the said pageant. We have here, therefore, on 
a large scale, the same kind of treatment which was applied on 
a small scale to chimney-pieces — allegorical figures and various 
inscriptions more or less pithy. It is a matter for speculation 

* Nichols' Progresses of Queen Elizabeth. 


whether either the Queen or the populace at large thoroughly 
grasped the full meaning of the several devices upon which 
so much ingenuity had been lavished ; but certainly to the 
monarch, who stopped at every pageant, and received an 
explanation of it, the journey must have been extremely tiring, 
seeing how great were the number and ingenuity of the 
pageants. To preserve so much good work from oblivion, 
within the next ten days an account of the whole " passage " 
was printed, which towards its close gives much credit to the 
city, forasmuch as without any foreign person, of itself, it 
beautified itself. This casual reference to the foreign person, 
and to the city being able to manage without his help, shows 
that he was a recognized factor in the production of design. 

When King James made his " memorable Passage from the 
Tower to Whitehall," on the 15th March, 1603 — 4, there were 
seven triumphal arches erected, of such importance that they 
were considered worthy of being engraved and published. 
They were designed by an Englishman, Stephen Harrison, 
"Joyner and Architect," and their architectural treatment 
followed the lines of the more pronounced Anglo-Italian work 
of the time, in which classic feeling has superseded Gothic. 
They are interesting as showing how completely the English 
craftsman had familiarized himself with the foreign methods of 
design. They were published by Harrison in 1604, the engrav- 
ings being by William Kip.* They were built in a substantial 
manner, nearly six months being spent upon their erection. 
Two of them were called respective!}' "The Italians' Pegme " 
and "The Pegme of the Dutchmen," residents of these two 
nationalities being responsible for their erection ; but it is 
curious to see that the Dutchmen's arch is not more Dutch in 
treatment than the Italians'. It evidently did not occur to 
Harrison to emphasize the character of his designs to suit the 
two nations, even if he were aware of the points in which 
their architecture differed. 

It was perhaps natural in those days that when Queen 
Elizabeth visited the great seats of learning she should be 

* The title of the book, which is well worth inspection, is " The Archs oj 
Triumph, erected in honor of the High and Mighty Prince James, the First of that 
Name King of England, and the Sixt of Scotland, at his Maiestie's Entrance and Passage 
through his Honorable Citty and Chamber of London, upon the i^th day of March, 1603. 
Invented and published by Stephen Harrison, Joyner and Architect ; and graven 
by William Kip. ' 


greeted with a shower of Latin verses and orations. Pages 
after pages of these have been preserved, but it seems 
extremely doubtful whether the recipient of them could have 
found time to master their contents. The orations she listened 
to and understood, for the expression of her face is said to 
have changed with the subject-matter of the speeches, and 
some of them she answered in the same tongue. But it was 
by no means to Eton or to Oxford and Cambridge that Latin 
verses and orations were confined : obscure parsons in small 
towns seized their opportunities, and were often handsomely 
praised by the Queen for their skill. As to verses, when she 
visited Sandwich in 1573, "upon every post and corner, from 
her first entry to her lodging, were fixed certain verses, and 
against the court gate all these verses put into a table {i.e., a 
frame) and there hanged up." 

The Queen's visit to Kenilworth Castle in July, 1575, is one 
of the best known episodes of her Progresses, and the 
" Princely Pleasures at Kenilworth Castle," recorded (and 
largely devised) by George Gascoigne, consisted of the same 
kind of entertainments as greeted her at her coronation. They 
are too long to quote extensively, but a few of the principal 
efforts will serve to show the kind of spirit that was abroad at 
the time. 

As the Queen approached the castle, Sybilla met her and 
prophesied prosperity in a number of verses. On entering the 
gate Hercules, who acted as porter, seemed inclined to dispute 
her entry, but being overcome by the "rare beauty and princely 
countenance" of her Majesty, he gave up his keys, and burst 
into poetry. In the base-court there came a lady, attended by 
two nymphs, and the lady welcomed her Majesty in another set 
of verses. A few steps further on came an actor clad like a 
poet, who pronounced a number of Latin verses, which were 
also fixed over the gate in a frame. After leaving the poet, she 
was received into the inner c(nn"t with sweet music, and then 
escaped to her own "lodgings." A day or two after her 
arrival there met her in the forest, as she came from hunting, 
one clad like a Savage man, all in ivy, who was so much over- 
come with wonder at the Queen's presence that he fell to 
quarrelling with Jupiter, and called upon ICcho to explain who 
the resplendent personage might be, incidentally contriving to 
lavish a number of compliments in the course of the inquiry. 


Then Triton came, and the Lady of the Lake, and Proteus 
sitting on a dolphin's back, who all delivered themselves of 
further compliments in lengthy verses. It is just conceivable 
that her Majesty grew a little weary of these pedantic inter- 
ludes, for one long show was prepared by Master Gascoigne, in 
which Diana and her nymphs, Mercury, Iris, and others were 
to have acted ; but in spite of every actor being ready in his 
garment for two or three days together, it never came to execu- 
tion, being prevented (its author thought) by lack of oppor- 
tunity and seasonable weather. At the Queen's departure, 
being commanded by the Earl of Leicester to devise some 
worthy farewell entertainment. Master Gascoigne clothed him- 
self as Sylvanus, the god of the woods, and meeting the Queen 
as she went hunting, broke out into a long extempore oration, 
which her Majesty at length interrupted by proceeding on her 
way. Sylvanus, however, kept pace with her, and continued 
his speech running at her side, until in very pity for his breath- 
less condition, the Queen stopped her horse. At Sylvanus's 
humble request, however, she continued her ride, and he con- 
tinued the ceaseless stream of his oration, until coming to an 
arbour, a second actor in the tedious drama, by name Deep 
Desire, took up his part, spake some verses, and sang a song. 
A few more lines from Sylvanus released the Queen from this 
very diverting farewell show\ 

Many other entertainments might be cited to illustrate the 
direction which popular taste took in these matters ; but to 
multiply instances would be as tedious to the reader as (one 
cannot help thinking) the shows themselves were to the Queen 
and her attendants. This, at any rate, becomes clear — that the 
favourite themes, personages, and allusions were of classic 
origin ; the thoughts were clothed in pedantic language ; verses 
were freely written and hung up for passers-by to read, and the 
Latin tongue was employed in preference to the English, where 
it was not absolutely necessary that the points should be 
understanded of the people. The accounts that have been 
handed down of these interludes are, it is true, somewhat 
tedious reading, but under the genial satire of Shakespeare 
they lose their dulness and become amusing. We do not tire 
of Holofernes and his party in their presentation of the Nine 
Worthies, nor of Bottom and his company in their great 
classical interlude of " the tedious brief scene of young Pyramus 


and his love Thisbe," nor of Orlando and his verses, which he 
hung on every tree. 

It was no small matter to entertain royalty in those days. 
Even in the present day, when facilities for moving about and 
for obtaining provisions are so vastly greater, and when the 
mode of life in the Court is so much simpler, it requires a large 
house and a well-filled purse. But in the sixteenth century 
the undertaking was more like providing for a small army, and 
it is not surprising to find that outside the wealthier owners of 
great mansions, there was a disposition to evade the honour. 
Lady Anne Askewe wrote to Sir Christopher Hatton, about the 
year 1581, to know if she might be excused on account of the 
shortness of the notice and her " unfurnished house."* The 
officials of the Court so far sympathized with this feeling that 
we find one of them writing to a friend who was threatened 
with the honour, Mr. More, of Loseley, to say what a " great 
trouble and hindrance " it would be, and to advise him to 
" come and declare unto my lord of Leicester your estate that 
majesty might not come unto your house." t It is not clear 
whether these representations were actually made, and if made 
whether they were successful or not; but, however that may be, 
the same gentleman (he was now knighted) received an inti- 
mation in August, 1583, from Sir Christopher Hatton that the 
Queen intended in about ten or twelve days to visit Losele\-, 
and to remain there some four or five days, and that he had 
better see everything well ordered and the " house kept swecit 
and clean to receive her highness." Three weeks later Sir 
William More had another letter from Sir Christopher to sa\' 
that on the third day thence the Queen intended to go to bed 
at Loseley for one night only, and that he should see that the 
house was *' sweet and meet to receive her majesty," and should 
send his family away. These involuntary hosts were not always 
consulted beforehand, for one of them wrote to Sir William 
More in July, 1577, to say that he foiuul the lists were issued 
for a progress into his county, and his iiouse was one of those 
to be visited ; accordingly lie wn^te t(j his loving friend, Sir 
William, to beg him, for the sake o( old ac(iuaintance and 
friendship, to say what order was taken by the Queen's officers 
in respect of provisions when her Majesty visited Loseley, as 

• Sir Nicholas Harris's Miiumiah 0/ Sir Cli. Jhitton, p. 22J. 
t Loseley MSS., p. 266. 


the writer was altogether unacquainted with the order of pro- 
cedure. The hsts of places to be visited, or " gests," as they were 
called, were carefully prepared beforehand, and gave the names 
of the houses and their owners, the number of nights the Court 
intended to stay, and the distance between one stopping-place 
and the next : this distance was on the average about ten miles, 
but it varied, according to circumstances, from five to fourteen, 
the latter being the longest journey attempted. 

To entertain the Sovereign and the Court the houses were 
necessarily-large, indeed we shall not be far wrong in attributing 
the enormous size of the largest — such places as Holdenby, 
Theobalds, and Audley End — to the express intention of pro- 
viding suitable accommodation for Elizabeth and James. Sir 
Christopher Hatton, in a letter to Sir Thomas Heneage, in 
1580, talks of Holdenby being dedicated to "that holy Saint,"' 
meaning the Queen ; and Lord Burghley, in writing to Hatton 
about Holdenby and Theobalds, says " God send us both long 
to enjoy Her, for whom we both meant to exceed our purses 
in these."* In another letter (August 14th, 1585) he says, " My 
house at Theobalds was begun by me with a mean measure, 
but increased by occasions of her Majesty's often coming."! 
These mansions may be regarded almost in the light of large 
hotels, with certain common apartments for the guests, a large 
kitchen department, and a vast number of rooms arranged in 
groups of two or three. 

Although notice of the sovereign's intended visit was usually 
given, it was not considered necessary for less exalted people 
to send word. When James's queen was journeying towards 
London from Scotland, a certain Lady Anne Clifford hurried 
with her mother to meet her. The lady describes her journey, 
and how they went without notice to a large house in Bed- 
fordshire.* She says that having killed three horses that day 
— it was midsummer — with extreme heat, they caine to Wrest, 
my Lord of Kent's house, "where we found the doors shut, 
and none in the house but one servant, who only had the keys 
of the hall, so that we were enforced to lie in the hall all 
night, till towards morning, at which time came a man and 

* Memorials of Holdenby, by Miss Hartshorne, p. i6. 

t England as seen ly Foreigners in the days of Elizabeth and James I., by W. B. 
Rye, p. 213. 

X Nichols' Progresses of King fames I., Vol. I., p. 174. 


let us into the higher rooms, where we slept three or four 
hours." This artless account quite casually illustrates the 
relation of the hall to the rest of the house. It was the room 
first entered from the outside, and was shut off by doors from 
all the rest of the house. The servant who let the travellers 
in probably slept either in the buttery or a " lodging" attached 
to it, and beyond those two apartments and the hall neither 
he nor they could go until the " man " came who had the keys 
which gave access to the stairs and the higher rooms. 

The Manner of Decorating Rooms. 

Some idea of what the rooms were like which surrounded a 
courtyard of the time may be gathered from the description of 
the suite allotted to the Earl of Lincoln when he went to 
Cassell, in 1596, on an embassage to the Landgrave of Hesse ; 
and although they were in a German castle the description 
would apply almost equally well to those in a large English 
house. The rooms were live in number, and they occupied 
the end of a goodly quadrangle, like the Louvre at Paris, high 
and stately.* They consisted of two dining chambers, two 
drawing chambers, and between the two latter a bed chamber, 
so placed " for his more quiet and private being." His lord- 
ship's own dining chamber was panelled with wood and marble, 
" with crestings, indentments, and Italian pillar work ; " there 
were escutcheons with the blazoned arms of the Landgrave's 
"friends and allies of the Protestant part," and on the four 
sides of the room next the ceiling were carxed four stories of 
the Creation, the Passion, the Resurrection, and the Judgment ; 
the ceiling was wrought with knot-work. The next room, 
where the ambassador's gentlemen dined, was hung with 
tapestry. The next " was a fair drawing chamber, seated 
round about, and covered with scarlet ; above the seats hung 
round with a rich small wrought tapestr}- of an ell broad, of 
emblem work, and verses written underneath ; over this, upon 
a ledge of wainscot, weie divers tables [pictures] of sundry 
devices, well painted, with their posies to garnish the chamber, 
and, among all, that was the best which had this motto : ' Major 
autem horum est caritas,' for it waxed cold. The roof was 

* Nichols' Progresses oj Queen lilcuiheth, Vol. II. 


likewise flourished with painting and devices. These rooms 
had the through Hght of four fair windows." The bedroom 
was decorated with a painted tree that grew up at the door, 
the branches spreading all over the ceiling, full of fruit, and 
hanging down upon the walls, with other pictures to fill up 
empty places ; the story taken out of Daniel. The last room 
of the suite was •' a fair drawing chamber hung with arras, 
which parted his Honour's lodging from the other side of the 
house, that so he might not any way be disturbed." We get 
therefore in this set of rooms an example of the three principal 
modes of decorating the walls — by panelling, by hanging with 
tapestry or arras, and (more seldom) by painting. At Theo- 
balds the hall was decorated with trees, and not only were they 
furnished with leaves and fruit, but, regardless of the niceties 
of natural history, with birds' nests too, and so lifelike was the 
effect that, according to the testimony of a German visitor in 
1592,* when the steward opened the windows the birds flew 
in, perched upon the trees, and began to sing — perhaps to 
express their surprise at finding fruit and nests on the trees at 
the same time. This realistic treatment was, fortunately, not 
very common, and it is rather curious that so strong a man as 
Lord Burghley should have delighted in such embellishments, 
and others equally puerile in conception. 

The more usual way of treating the walls was to cover them 
either with hangings or with panelling. There are numberless 
references to the former among the poets of the time. Imogen's 
bedchamber was " hanged with tapestry of silk and silver " ; 
Falstaff fell asleep behmd the arras when he took his ease in 
his inn, and had his pocket picked ; Polonius, when he hid 
himself in order to overhear Hamlet's interview with his mother, 
slipped behind the arras, and it was through the arras that 
Hamlet subsequently made the fatal pass with his sword. The 
rooms in Spencer's Castle Joyous " were round about apparelled 
with costly cloths of Arras and of Tours," and the parlour of 
Alma's castle "was with ro\al arras richly dight." These 
hangings were moved from house to house when the family 
migrated from one abode to another, and in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's IVit without Money there is a lively scene in which 
a great lady suddenly determines to leave her house in town 

* The Secretary of Frederick, Duke of Wirtemberg. England as seen by 
Foreigners in the days of Elizabeth and James I., by W. B. Rye, p. 44. 



for the country. Amid the confusion which ensues — servants 
shouting, my lady's sister in much anxiety about her dog, her 
looking-glass, and her curls — Ralph calls to Roger to help 
down with the hangings, but Roger declines, as he is unable to 
leave the packing of his trunks. The hangings at Hampton 
Court were of the most costly description,* Cardinal Wolsey 
being an ardent collector, and utilizing the services of his agents 

I34.~-Hki>koom in Dkknk Hai.l, Nokthamptonshirk. Pi.astkk 
Ceii.inu: Tapkstky on VVai.i.s. 

in various foreign countries to add to his stores. Three-(|uarters 
of a century later much of this splendour was still left, and the 
German visitor whom we have alread}- seen at Theobalds says 
of Hampton Court, that " all the apartments and rooms in this 
immensely large structure arc hung with rich tapestry, of jmuc 
gold and fine silk."+ T^'rom this regal magnificence there were 
numberless gradations down to the " smirch'd, worm-eaten 

* Law, Vol. I., p. 57. 

t linglaiiil tis seen hy I-'meif^ncrs, p. iX. 


tapestry " mentioned in that conversation between Borachio 
and Conrade which led to their arrest by Dogberry. The sub- 
jects of these hangings were of extreme diversity — scriptural, 
mythological, and allegorical. There were the stories of Toby, 
Our Lady, and the Forlorn Son, alongside of those of Priamus, 
Venus and Cupid, and Hannibal. The story of Esther balanced 
the Romaunt of the Rose. Christian saints and heathen gods 
were equally welcome, and always and everywhere, either in 
foliated borders or forming the subject-matter itself, were the 
arms of the owner, with angels or amorini to support them, 
and a convoluted scroll to bear the motto. The allegorical 
subjects are the most bewildering, and they even puzzled the 
people of the time, to whom such trains of thought were 
familiar, for it is expressly said of the tapestry in Alma's 
parlour that in it there was nothing pourtrayed nor wrought 
but what w^as easy to understand. Of course much of the 
tapestry which was so widely used has now disappeared, or has 
found its way into the hands of collectors ; very little is left in 
its original positions, even if it remains in the houses for which 
it was first acquired. There is a fair amount, however, to be 
found up and dow n the country, and the effect of tapestry-hung 
walls in conjunction with a rich plaster ceiling is shown in 
Fig. 134, from a bedroom in Deene Hall, Northamptonshire. 

Wood Panelling. 

Wood panelling is of a more permanent character than 
tapestry, or at least is not so easily removed and adapted to 
fresh situations ; and there are many examples left of this mode 
of clothing and decorating the walls of houses and churches. 
It was in vogue tolerably early in the century, and there is a 
contract, printed in the History of Hengrave, between Sir 
Thomas Kytson, for whom the house was built, and Thomas 
Xeker, for "seelyng" the house. This " seelyng " has been 
mistaken for plastering, but a perusal of the contract shows 
that it must have been panelling, since some of the rooms are 
to be " seelyd " their whole height, and others only to the 
height of the windows, or a certain number of feet high 
Stools, benches, cupboards, and portals are also mentioned as 
part of the work, as well as " the gates at the coming in " ; and 
Sir Thomas is to find all manner of timber, hewn and sawn. 



Among the rooms to be thus panelled were the hall, the two 
parlours, the wardrobe over the cellar, and the two great 
chambers above the dais. Seven lodgings, that is bedchambers, 
were to have portals only ; sixteen other lodgings were to be 
" seelyd " to the pendant's foot, and on the pastry house a 
wardrobe was to be made, with one close press, and open 
presses round about. There was to be a fret on the ceiling of 
the hall with hanging pendants, "vault fashion"; no doubt 
after the manner of 
the watching chamber 
at Hampton Court, 
which was being built 
about the same time. 
Towards these works 
Sir Thomas Kytson 
was to provide the 
contractor with "all 
the old seelyng, and 
frets of the old work 
that isin his keeping." 
The development of 
wood panelling is of 
considerable interest. 
Previous to the six- 
teenth century, that 
is in the days of the 
Gothic manner, the 
construction was on 
a substantial scale, 
the framing being 
formed of wood up- 
rights and cross-pieces, measuring, perhaps, four inches by 
three in section, the uprights being from eighteen inches to 
two feet apart, and strengthened by horizontal cross-pieces at 
heights of three, four, or five feet, or thereabouts, iiccording 
to the height of the room. The spaces thus formed into 
panels were filled with one piece of board let into the sur- 
rounding framing, which was sometimes spla\ed, but more 
generally moulded, the mouldings being stopped before they 
encountered the cross-pieces. The screen in the hall at 
Haddon (Fig. 135) illustrates this early method of cc^nstruction, 

135. — Haddon Ham., Dkkhvshikk. 




while against it, and clothing the wall and the side of the 
window-opening, is the seventeenth-century panelling, the 
development of which will be presently explained. The 
panels in Gothic work were ornamented either with cusping, 
such as may be seen in the upper part of the screen at 
Haddon, behind the antlers, or with paintings, such as still 
remain in a number of churches, especially in the eastern and 

south - western 
counties. Gra- 
the large size of 
the framework 
was reduced : 
instead of being 
four or five 
inches thick by 
three or four 
inches wide, it 
became only 
about an inch 
or so thick 
by about the 
same width as 
formerly. The 
panels were 
made narrower, 
because it was 
found easier to 
get boards ten 
or twelve inches 
wide than of a 
width twice 

those sizes, and gradually the very long proportion of height to 
width was lessened, the panels became more nearly square, and 
eventually they were made of varying sizes and proportions, 
but rhythmically arranged. 

The old idea of moulding or splaying the wood framework 
was long retained, and practical considerations in the framing 
of it together gave rise to a particular kind of effect, which is 
characteristic of the earlier kind of panelling. The framework 
is composed of vertical and horizontal pieces of wood tenoned 

136. — Panelling of the Time of Henry VIII. 



together and secured by wood pins. It is obvious that if the 
edges of all the wood were moulded before it was framed 
together, it would be impossible to make a neat junction where 
the pieces crossed, because the continuous moulding on the 
edge of the one piece would interfere with the proper adjust- 
ment of the end of the other which comes against it at right 
angles. It will be seen by referring to Fig. 136, that on 
the horizontal rails, which are continuous, the moulding and 
the splay die out before they reach the vertical pieces, thus 
leaving a plain surface sufficiently wide for the latter to abut 
against, whereas 
on the vertical 
pieces the mould- 
ings are con- 
tinued from top 
to bottom of the 
panel and stop 
abruptly against 
the horizontal 
rails. The verti- 
cal pieces could 
therefore have 
been worked in 
one long piece 
and then cut into 
lengths, whereas 
on the horizontal 
rails the mould- 
ing was worked 
in lengths to suit 
the width of the panels — a more troublesome proceeding, and 
one requiring thought and care. The tendency of all change 
in workmanship being towards the saving of thought and care 
on the part of the great body of workers, the next steps in the 
development of panelling were in this direction. But before 
following these steps, a reference to Fig. 137 will show how in 
some cases the horizontal rails are continuous, with the edge- 
mouldings dying out, while the vertical are in short lengths 
with continuous mouldings abutting against the horizontal 
rails ; and in others the parts played are reversed, and it is 
the vertical pieces which run through. It will be noticed that 

R.A. L 

137. — Stanford Church, Northamptonshire. 




in addition to the edge-moulding, there are others on the face 
of the rails which, not being subject to interference by the 
abutting of the cross-pieces, are worked continuously without 
a break. 

In both these examples (Figs. 136, 137), and also in Fig. 138, 
it will be observed that the panel itself is decorated with some 
kind of carving. The English form is shown in Fig. 137, 
where the panels are what are known as linen panels, the 

decoration taking a form some- 
thing like folded linen. In the 
long gallery at the Vyne the 
walls are panelled with linen 
panelling, with the addition of 
coats of arms, or badges, or 
scrolls bearing a motto (Fig. 19). 
A later form is seen in Fig. 136, 
where the design is quite Italian 
in feeling. The circular panels 
containing heads became a 
favourite feature in English 
panelling about the end of 
Henry VIII. 's reign, and may 
generally be ascribed to a date 
within a few years of 1540. The 
diamond-shaped panels in the 
lower part appear to be hori- 
zontal panels standing on their 
ends, and are probably not in 
their original relation to the 
others. The two charming dol- 
phins counter-hauriant, if the 
term may be allowed, carved at the top of a long panel, leaving 
the lower part plain, give a quaint and pleasing effect (Fig. 138). 
The presence of dolphins rather points to French influence, for, 
although no doubt the use of this form started in Italy, it was 
eagerly adopted by the French, since the dolphin was the cogni- 
zance of their dauphin. The door at Castle Rising (Fig. 139) 
gives another example of the use of heads in circular panels 
among Italian foliage ; but it will be noticed that the mouldings 
round the panels do not conform to the type already explained, 
but to one which is a step forwarder in development. Instead 

138. — A Panel of the Time of 
Henry VHI. 




of the mouldings of the continuous horizontal rails being stopped 
short of the sides of the panels, they are carried on and intersect 
with them. This intersection is called by joiners a mitre, and 
a mitred moulding is an advance on a stopped moulding or one 
that abuts against a cross-piece. It will be seen that in this 
example, although the moulding is mitred at the top of the 
panel, it still abuts against 
the bottom rail. In the 
panelling from Haddon 
Hall (Plate XL.) it will be 
seen that the very simple 
moulding mitres all round 
the panels. But in all 
these cases the mouldings 
are what are called " out 
of the solid," that is, the 
actual framework of the 
panels is moulded, the con- 
sequence being that wher- 
ever a moulding had to be 
stopped or mitred, thought 
and care were required, 
and a failure of either in- 
volved the injury of a fairly 
large piece of wood. The 
next step therefore was to 
refrain from working a 
moulding on the solid 
wood, but to keep square 
edges to the framework, 
and after framing up all the 
panelling with these square 
edges, to insert round the 

margin of each panel a 139— Door at Casti.k Kising, Norfolk. 

small separate moulding planted on to the recessed panel. 
This saved much time and labour, and consequently expense, 
and is the method [pursued in the present day. Its appli- 
cation may be seen in almost an}- four-panelled door in an 
ordinary house. 

This latest form, the *' applied " mitred moulding, hardly 
came into general use so early as the time of Kli;^abeth or 

L 2 



James — indeed, the date of its earliest occurrence is a question 
of considerable interest. But mouldings mitred on the solid 
had almost entirely replaced the older form of stopped mould- 
ings by the end of the sixteenth century. By returning to the 
illustration of the screen at Haddon (Fig. 135), an example may 
be seen alongside the heavier Gothic work ; and another 
example, with a much deeper and broader moulding, may be 
seen in an upper room at the same place (Plate XLI.). It is 

a provoking characteristic of 
work of this time that its 
method of treatment does not 
give an infallible clue to its 
chronological sequence. In 
earlier times the mouldings 
gave this clue : when once a 
form was superseded by 
another, it did not occur again ; 
but in the period now under 
consideration fashion was not 
so accommodating, and though 
on the whole the mitred mould- 
ing is later than the stopped 
moulding and finally super- 
seded it, yet there are early 
examples of mitring, as in the 
panelling at the Vyne, which 
must have been put up before 
Wolsey's death in 1530, and 
there are late examples of 
stopped mouldings in such 
things as chests, which may be 
as late as James I. The pewing and pulpit at Haddon 
(Plate XLI.) have them, and they are late Elizabethan, if 
not Jacobean, while the panelling in the dining-room, which 
is dated 1545, is mitred. 

The panels themselves, which in early days were decorated 
with the linen pattern, and subsequently with Italian foliage 
and heads within circles, became plainer and simpler. In the 
dining-room at Haddon all the lower panels are plain, while 
a kind of frieze of ornament is carried round in those next to 
the cornice. The ornament consists for the most part of coats 

140. — Door at Beckington Abbev, 









W o 

Q « 



of arms from the Vernon pedigree, but there are also heads in 
circles, linen panels, initials with true lovers' knots, and other 
devices. All these are carved in relief, but in later times carving 
gave way to patterns formed by sinking the groundwork and 
leaving the design on a level with the face of the panel. There 
was little or no modelling in the design, and the work could be 
done by a less skilful hand than actual carving would require. 
An example is to 
be seen in a door 
at Beckington 
Abbey (Fig. 140) : 
the same kind of 
work was often 
applied to the rails 
of panelling, the 
face of pilasters, 
and other plain 
surfaces. Another 
specimen, with a 
little more model- 
ling in it, is at 
Nailsea Court 
(Fig. 141). The 
services of the 
carver were, how- 
ever, by no means 
dispensed with, 
and there is a 
vast amount of 
richly ornamented 
panelling up and 
down the country, 
both in houses and churches. The monotony of the con- 
stantly repeated oblongs was broken by the introduction 
of pilasters, which were themselves fluted or decorated with 

Carbrook Hall, near Sheffield, which has now fallen from its 
former estate, has a very fine panelled room, in which the 
pilasters are richly decorated with various simple patterns 
(Plate XLII.). They support a carved frieze, above which 
is a wood cornice, and above this again is a modelled 

141. — Door at Nailska Coukt, Somkkset. 



plaster frieze some 
handsome ceilinqf. 

two feet deep, forming part of the 

At Benthall Hall, Shropshire, is another instance where the 
monotony of the panels is relieved by the introduction of pilasters, 
and it is also lessened by the presence of the large centre panels 
(Plate XLIII.) with their greater freedom of treatment. The 
variation caused by adapting the same design to the narrower 
panel of the door in the middle bay is also a pleasant relief. 
The intention here was to rely upon the panelling itself for the 

J42. — Part of Reredos (removed) at Stowe-Nine-Churches, Northamptonshire. 

decoration of the room ; there was no thought of hanging 
pictures on it, which, indeed, would be out of place, and would 
spoil the effect both of themselves and the panelling. It may 
be doubted whether any of the panelling of the time, even the 
simplest and the most regularly disposed, was intended as a 
background for other ornament. It was itself the decoration, 
although, when perfectly simple, it could be used in a restricted 
way as a background for pictures. But the fashion of hanging 
up framed paintings and prints had not yet arisen ; when it did 
arise it rendered wood panelling an inappropriate means for 
the general decoration of rooms. In the church at Stowe- 


< "5 

y- o^ 



Nine-Churches, Northamptonshire, are the remains of some 
good panelhng which once served as a reredos, but which 
the reforming and restoring zeal of a late incumbent has 
now relegated to the vestry. There are fluted pilasters here, 
dividing panels which increase in richness as they ascend, 
the upper ones containing boldly projecting heads amid the 
usual strap-work curls (Fig. 142). Sometimes the panels were 
made with semicircular heads, which rested upon pilasters 
furnished with imposts and bases, all the margin being highly 
ornamented, while the panels themselves were plain, as in the 
Court pew at Chel- 
vey, in Somerset 
(Fig. 143). There 
are many instances 
of the use of these 
arched panels : the 
long gallery at Had- 
don has them in wide 
and narrow widths 
alternately; and 
there is a room in 
the Red Lodge at 
Bristol where every 
panel is arched, the 
effect thus produced 
being very rich. At 
Chelvey the frieze is 
carved with a con- 
tinuous pattern, as 
it was in very many 

instances, but sometimes it was decorated in a more mechanical 
way with ovals and oblongs, as at Benthall Hall (Plate XLIIL), 
and occasionally it was pierced in a very charming manner 
into a kind of filigree work, as in the remains of a screen at 
Stowe-Nine-Churches, which has shared the fate of the reredos 
(Fig. 144). The effect of the frieze in this instance is enhanced 
by its being slightly curved outwards. 

In later days, instead of cutting down the substance of the 
wood in order to get carving in relief, the projection was 
obtained by cutting the ornament out of another piece of wood 
and applying it to the surfaces that were to be decorated. 

143. — Pakt of the Coukt Pkw, Chki.vky Chukch, 



Some of the ornament at Henthall Hall appears to be treated 
in this manner. But whatever means were adopted, the 
end aimed at was the same — namely, an extreme richness of 
effect : indeed, in some of the panelling and in many of 
the chimney-pieces the result is bewildering in its intricacy 
of line. 

144. — Part of Screen (removed), Stowe-Nine-Churches, 



Treatment of the Hall, Screens, Open Roofs. 

On entering the hall after leaving the courtyard, it was on 
such panelling as this that the eye rested. The screen which 
divided the hall from the passage was generally even more 
richly decorated than the adjacent panelling. Its two door- 
ways were flanked with columns, which carried a complete 

entablature from 

side to side of the 
hall; above this 
came the panelled 
front of the gallery, 
which was sur- 
mounted in its turn 
perhaps by a series 
of small arches, per- 
haps by some of the 
fantastic strap-work 
peculiar to the time. 
The spaces between 
the columns were 
panelled ; every 
panel here and 
above was decorated 
with carving — 145.— the hai.l, knolk, kknt. 

usually of shields of arms, but where these were not suitable, 
as in halls of colleges, then with foliage or allegorical figures. 
Knole House, in Kent, has a good example of a screen with 
heraldic decoration (Fig. 145). Wadham College, Oxford 
(Plate XLIV.), has one of comparatively simple character ; 
while for sumptuous effect those at Middle Temple Hall, 
London, and Trinity College, Cambridge (Plate XLV.) 



could hardh- be surpassed. Woollas Hall, in Worcestershire, 
has a good screen of simple character. The illustration on 
Plate XLVI. gives a view of it looking from the hall. The 
archway leads into the passage called the "screens," in which 
can be seen the open door of the principal entrance. The 
gallery has a balustraded front ; it is carried out over the 
entrance porch, and is lighted by a small window, visible in 
Fig. 69, just below the oriel. The hall, having a room over it, 

146.— Woi.i.ATON Hall, Nottinghamshire. The Roof of the Great Hall (ijiio — 88). 

has a flat ceiling, and not an open timber roof. The windows 
of the hall were usually rather high up, and the walls were 
panelled up to the sills, but as a rule the sill of the bay window at 
the dais end was brought down low enough to afford an outlook. 
Above the panelling the walls were largely occupied by the 
windows, the spaces between which were hung with " pikes, 
guns, and bows, with old swords and bucklers that had borne 
many shrewd blows " : or they were filled with pictures, of 
which a considerable number, chiefly portraits, began to be 
found in large houses. From the top of the windows sprang 


hj = 






the roof, the feet of its principals coming down and occupying 
part of wall space between them. The principals were still 
constructed in the old hammer-beam manner, even at so late 
a date as 1604 for Trinity College, Cambridge, and 1612 for 
Wadham, but all the ornament is of a late type, and gives a 
very rich effect, the light glancing upwards against the many 
surfaces of the pendants and the strong lines of the moulded 
braces. The roof at Middle Temple Hall, built in 1570, is 
almost as elaborate and line as that of the Great Hall at 
Hampton Court, built some forty years before, but the detail 

1.(7.— Kuoi 01 (ikiAi Ham., Kiuhv, N'outhamptonshire (1575). 

is later in character. The roof of the hall at Wollaton is 
peculiar in that it is of the hammer-beam type, although sup- 
porting the flat floor of a room over it (Fig. 146). Usually, 
when there was a room over the hall the ceiling was treated 
with ornamental rib-work, in the same manner as the other 
and less lofty rooms : the hall at Knole presents an example 
of this kind of treatment (Fig. 145). At Kirby there is an 
unusual form of roof, neither flat nor open timbered, but a 
kind of barrel-vault formed of four straight faces (Fig. 147) ; 
each face is divided into large panels by moulded and cut oak 
ribs of large size, and each panel has a curved diagonal rib 


resembling the wind-braces of a Gothic roof. The panels are 
filled with boarding at the back of the ribs. 

The Smaller Rooms. 

Leaving the hall for one of the smaller rooms, we find much 
the same kind of treatment, but here the ornamental ceiling 
plays an important part in the decoration. The walls were 
panelled, more or less richly, from floor to ceiling, and were 
crowned with a carved frieze and projecting cornice, above 
which started the ceiling ribs. The great chamber at South 
Wraxall (Plate XLVH.) gives a good idea of the whole effect, 
but the coved ceiling is somewhat exceptional, and so also is 
the great projection to the left. This is a mass of masonry 
required to carry the roofs, but the designer, who found himself 
obliged to leave it (for this room was contrived in an old house), 
resolved to face the matter boldly and make an ornamental 
feature of it. It will be noticed that though the panelling here 
is quite simple, a good deal of character is obtained by varying 
the size of the panels in a systematic manner. 

In the old Town Hall at Leicester there is a good panelled 
room (Plate XLVIIL), with a handsome chimney-piece and a 
special seat for the mayor. The work, which bears the date 
1637, is simple in design, but is quite as effective and rather 
more pleasing than many of the more elaborate effects of the 
time, in which the impression is conveyed that the designers 
over-exerted themselves. 

Another good example of rather later date is to be seen at 
the " Reindeer " Inn, Banbury (Plate XLIX.) ; the panelling 
itself is simple, but the doorways and chimney-piece are more 
elaborate, and the columns which occur at the angles of the 
window-recess impart considerable vigour to the whole effect. 
The restraint exhibited and the concentration of the ornament 
on one or two places is a welcome relief from the superfluity of 
decoration which not infrequently distinguishes the woodwork 
of this period. In the broken and curled pediments of the 
doorway and chimney-piece we get a decided indication that 
the seventeenth century was well advanced when this work was 
done. The ceiling here is very richly wrought, and the whole 
room comes as a surprise in its out-of-the-way situation. 

Sizergh Hall, in Westmorland, offered a still more elaborate 


»vK\ ^^^ 


-v'' ,*v^;fi*. -J' /.:,^ 


^UML.. ^UJ»-4 .-JiL^i^ JtUiW- 

Plate L. 

•-^jjA.t»r.i'>. , . . I . . I . . * 

(now in the victoria and albert museum.) 




INTERIOR I'ORCH. (About 1599). 


example, which has now been erected in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (Fig. 148 and Plate L.). The panels here are not 
carved, but inlaid — a method of decoration much in vogue in 
Italy, where some exquisite drawing is bestowed upon it, but not 
prevalent in England. There are a number of instances in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, but, compared with carving, inlay 
was seldom resorted to. The domed turret in the corner of the 

. $caU • op. /^^f f ?■ f <^ e. t I £ e rF^et . 

148. — Panelling from Sizergh Hall, Westmorland (now in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum). 

room should be noticed (Fig. 148) ; it is, in fact, an inside 
porch contrived so as to allow access between two other rooms 
without having to come through the third. This device in 
planning is not of frequent occurrence, but when it was con- 
sidered necessary much care was taken to produce an attractive 
feature. There are several in the southern counties, notably 
at Broughton Castle, Oxfordshire (Plate LI.), at the Red 
Lodge, in Bristol, and at Bradfield, in Devonshire. This room 



at Sizergh presents a fresh type of treatment in the junction of 
wall and ceiling. In previous examples the wood panelling 
was carried quite up to the ceiling ; here it stops short by a 
foot or more, and the space thus left is occupied by a modelled 
plaster frieze which leads up to the ornamental ceiling. This 
method was adopted as frequently as the other ; the depth of 
the plaster frieze varied a good deal, being in one of the rooms 
at Hardwick Hall as much as six or seven feet, and filled 
with figure subjects modelled in relief and painted, repre- 
senting hunting and other woodland scenes : the space below 
the frieze is covered with tapestry instead of panelling 
(Plate LII.). 


Doorways presented another opportunit}^ for the display of 
design. At Sizergh the door is merely a portion of the 

panelling on hinges, the porch 
in which it is hung gives it 
the requisite importance ; but 
as a rule the doorways were 
surrounded with a large 
amount of decoration. In 
important houses they were 
flanked with columns or pilas- 
ters, w^ere surmounted with 
a frieze and cornice, and often 
with a pediment ; obelisks 
stood over the pilasters ; the 
frieze was fluted or carved or 
adorned at intervals with 
heads; some convenient panel 
was filled with the owner's 
arms ; nothing was omitted 
that an extravagant fancy 
could suggest (Plate LIIL). 
At Levens Hafl, in Westmor- 
land, there is a fine panelled 
room with a richly orna- 
149— Doorway, aubotts hosiital, meutcd doorway (Plate 

Guildford, Surrey (1627). __, . i-i r 

LI v.), m which fantastic 
figures support a cornice whereon is set up a panel for the 









Plate LIII. 


Plate LIV 




owner's arms, flanked on either hand by a contorted animal. 

150. — Latch from Abbott's Hospital, Guildford. 

In the same district, at Conishead Priory, there is a panelled 
room of even greater elaboration than this at Levens. Some 
of the panels are 
ornamented with 
mouldings mitred 
into various pat- 
terns, but most of 
them have niches 
with pediments or 
raised panels sur- 
rounded w^ith 
mouldings curved 
and straight and 
breaking back in 
a bewildering 
manner, while 
here, there, and 
everywhere are 
cherubs' heads 
and bunches of iji.-i-atch from haddos HAi.r.. 

fruit — the whole effect being rather too bizarre. 

Sometimes the embellishment surrounding the door was in 
stone or even marble which being less susceptible of minute 



detail was more soberly treated. In smaller houses the treat- 

ment was naturally less elabo- 
rate, but even in places like 
St. Peter's Hospital, Bristol, 
and Abbott's Hospital at 
Guildford, the doorways had 
much attention bestowed upon 
them (Fig. 149 and Plate 
LV.). At Gayton Manor 
House, in Northamptonshire, 
there is a still simpler treat- 
ment, the effect being enhanced 
by projecting the door some 
inches into the room (Plate 
LV.). The hinges and 
latches of the doors and the 
fastenings of the window case- 
ments were of wrought iron, 
and were always more or less 
152.-L0cK-Pi.ATEs, Latches, &c. ornamental. There were in- 

variably skill and ingenuity bestowed upon even the smallest 

153.— Casement Fastener from Haddon Hall. 

piece of work. The latch from Abbott's Hospital, illustrated 
in Fig. 150, is an example of a spring latch, that is to say,. 



instead of depending 

A Key (S'loi 

154. — Kev-plate from Abbott's 
Hospital, Guildford. 

merely upon its weight to keep it in its 
place, it is furnished with a spring, and 
the whole of the simple mechanism is 
displayed to view. The plate to which 
it is fixed is shaped in suitable places, 
and the latch and its accessories are 
also ornamented to a certain extent. 
On the other side of the door would be 
a handle, something after the fashion of 
that shown in Fig. 151, which, however, 
is at Haddon. It is treated in a similar 
fashion : the plate is slightly ornamented, 
and the handle itself is wrought into a 

shape at once convenient to grasp and agree- 
able to the eye. In the casement fasteners 
a little more ornament was sometimes in- 
dulged in, advantage being taken of the fact 
that the ironwork was outlined against the 
light of the window. There are two simple 
examples shown in Fig. 152, and a more 
elaborate one in Fig. 153. The same treat- 
ment was applied to the escutcheons of key- 
holes, of which examples are shown in Fig. 
152 and Fig. 154; the former also exhibits a 
lock plate and a drop handle and plate. It 
will be noticed that the whole of this orna- 
ment, although in some instances it looks 
rich, is in reality obtained by the simplest 
means, which consist in the main of cutting 
a thin plate of metal into a variety of shapes ; 
there is hardly any modelling about it. This 
method is characteristic of most of the iron- 
work of the time ; it was only seldom that 
modelled ornament was indulged in to the 
extent shown in the knocker and plate illus- 
trated in Fig. 155. 


A Knockkr (1618). 

Much elaboration was bestowed upon the chimney-pieces, of 
which, indeed, there are very few simple examples to be met 
with. They were made of wood, of stone, and of marble. 

K.A. M 


Wood and stone were the more usual materials employed, and 
it is difficult to say upon which the detail was the more minute. 
The general idea that controlled the designs was much the 
same in all cases, but the treatment of it varied. The idea 
was to flank the fireplace opening wuth columns carrying an 
entablature consisting of architrave, frieze, and cornice, the 
projection of the latter forming a convenient shelf. On the 
top of this composition was another of the same kind, but 
with smaller columns and of more delicate proportion. The 
space enclosed between the columns, which in the lower half 
was the fireplace, was occupied in the upper half by some 
kind of carved subject. This was very often the arms of the 
owner, being either those of the family, or his own special 
achievement. At Boughton House, in Northamptonshire, 
there is an example of this kind (Plate LVL). It is fairly 
simple in design; the centre-piece is the Montagu arms; on 
the margin of the panel is the motto adopted by Sir Edward 
Montagu, who caused the work to be done ; and in the 
frieze below is one of the innumerable Latin aphorisms with 
■which houses of this time abound. The fireplace opening 
occupies the full width between the sides of the chimney- 
piece, and if the grate w'ere removed, would give a tolerable 
idea of the appearance of an Elizabethan fireplace, with its 
cast-iron fire-back delicately modelled, and the fire- dogs, or 
andirons, to hold the logs in place. This particular fire-back, 
however, is of a later date. Almost contemporary with this 
fireplace at Boughton is one at Lacock Abbey (Plate LVII.), 
equally simple in design, but executed with more refinement, 
and having a very unusual adjunct in the shape of a hearth- 
stone ornamented with a pattern inlaid with lead. The two 
works are likely to be of much the same date, as Sir William 
Sharington of Lacock died in 1553, and Sir Edward Montagu 
of Boughton in 1556. At Barlborough, in Derbyshire, there is 
a fine chimney-piece still fairly simple, in which the upper part 
is devoted to the owner's personal history (Plate LVIIL). His 
name was Francis Rodes, a lawyer, and subsequently a justice 
of the Common Pleas. He married twice. These facts are 
all set forth on the chimney-piece. His own arms, and those 
of his two wives, are carved at large, and the names of his 
wives are printed against their shields. The upper cornice is 
supported by two caryatides instead of columns, one of whom 

Plate LVI. 

NORTHAMl'TONSHIKE (bkkokk 1556). 

Plate LVII. 



Plate LVIII. 


A CHIMNEY I'lECE. (1584). 

Plate LIX. 



Plate LX. 




« . 


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represents Justice, in allusion to the calling of the master. 
At Hatfield House, in a room called after King James, there 
is a handsome marble chimney-piece, with a large statue of the 
King in his robes as the centre-piece (Plate LIX.). Here, too, 
there is an open hearth, with an iron fire-back and handsome 
andirons. In the great chamber at South Wraxall is a very 
elaborate stone chimney-piece (Plate LX.), in which the 
prevailing idea is highly developed. The lower entablature is 
supported by pairs of caryatides growing out of pilasters, and 
adorned with bands and swags of flowers. Within the main 
enclosure is a subordinate margin of mouldings and egg-and- 
tongue enrichments. The upper part of the composition, though 
founded on the same idea of columns supporting a crowning 
cornice, is much elaborated with niches and carved panels. 
There are no shields of arms, which is rather a curious omission, 
but instead there are statues of abstract conceptions — Arith- 
metica, Geometria, Prudentia, and Justitia. The whole effect 
is extremely handsome, but it is too intricate to be quite 

In contrast to this is an interesting chimney-piece in a bedroom 
at Hardwick Hall, in Derbyshire (Plate LXL). The material 
is marble, and the design is unpretending. Its noticeable 
feature is the panel that serves as overmantel, carved with 
much grace and spirit. The subject seems to be Apollo and 
the Nine Muses, though some of the latter appear to have 
abandoned for the time being the callings over which they 
presided, in order to join in concerted music. The period of 
the work is put beyond a doubt by the presence of the royal 
arms with Elizabeth's supporters, the lion and the dragon, and 
of the initials K. K. Panels with figure subjects were not 
uncommon, although they were not often so well executed as 
this. Scriptural themes were frequently represented, but they 
did not necessarily imply any special religious character in the 
house, and often in some of the other rooms of the same house 
would be other themes of cjuite mundane inspiration. At East 
Quantockshead, in Somerset, a house of the Luttrells, one room 
has in the overmantel the Descent from the Cross, the next a 
mermaid with scrollwork and flowers, the next the Luttrell 
arms and the date 1614 : others have Christ Blessing the 
Children; the Lamentation over Jerusalem, with the city in the 
distance, and a hen in the foreground gathering her chickens 

M 2 



under her Nvinp^s ; and the Agony in the Garden. Another 
house in that district has the Affliction of Job, with the prin- 
cipal figure represented as being in exceedingly poor case. 
Occasionally there were no figure subjects, nor even shields, 
the panels being quite plain, as in the wood chimney-piece at 

156. — Wooo Chimnky-i'Ieck, Bknthai.i, Hall, Shropshirk. 

Ford House, Newton Abbot (Plate LXII.), where the consider- 
able amount of enrichment serves as ornament only, and does 
not lend lustre to the family arms. The workmanship is not 
of the best, and the details of the design are somewhat poor 
and wanting in imagination, especially in the treatment of the 
arched panels ; but it is characteristic of a good deal of work 

Plate LXII. 

WOOD (HlMNllV-I'lllCi:. FOKl) IIOCSi:, NKWTON AI'.I'.Ol' 

Plate LXIII. 

(now out of doors.) 

< u 



of the time. The chimney-piece at Benthall Hall (Fig. 156) 
is far more beautifully conceived. It departs from the regular 
treatment in the disposition of the main panels. There is 
great freedom about the play of the strap-work and figures 
surrounding the cartouches, and if it be compared with the 
panelling in the same room (Plate XLIIL), it will be seen that 
while preserving the same general idea, there is a special richness 
about this part of 
the work which is 
quite appropriate 
to it as being the 
chief feature of 
the room. It will 
be seen that here, 
too, the car- 
touches in the 
upper panels bear 
coats of arms. At 
Whiston, in Sus- 
sex, there is a 
stone chimney- 
piece which has 
got excluded from 
the house, and 
now adorns an 
outside wall. It is 
of unusual design 
(Plate LXIIL), 
but the family 
arms form the 
centre-piece, and 
are flanked by 
figures of warriors in recesses divided by small, elegant columns. 
In the upper part is a circular panel containing two subjects, 
of which it is difficult to decipher the meaning ; the figures, 
however, are in violent action. Bolsover Castle contains some 
of the most striking examples of chimney-pieces to be found 
in the country. They are all in stone or marble, and have a 
variety and originality of design which are (juite remarkable. 
Two of them are illustrated on Plate LXIV. There are also 
a number of small ones fitted into corners of the rooms 

157. — SroNK Chimnkv-pikck, Holsovek Casilk, Dkkbyshike. 


(Fig. 157), and it will be seen that the walls against which the 
chimney-piece is placed are faced with stone to receive it, and 
that this plain stonework is surrounded with a moulding against 
which the wood panelling stops. 

There was a chimney-piece of unusually good design and 
workmanship in the palace of Bromley-by-Bow : it is now in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum (Plate LXV.). The composi- 
tion does not quite follow the usual lines, inasmuch as the 
upper part, or overmantel, is not a repetition in idea of the 
lower. Nor is it divided into panels of equal width and height ; 
the large central panel, which 'contains the royal arms, is the 
dominating feature, and is flanked on either side by a niche of 
much less width and height. The upper half is wedded to the 
lower by the bosses on the boldly carved shelf, which carry 
down the main lines of the columns. The arms are those of 
James I., as the second and third quarters are Scotland and 
Ireland respectively, and one of the supporters is the Scottish 
unicorn. In another house near London, at Enfield, there was 
a well-designed chimney-piece, figured in Richardson's Studies 
from Old English Mansions, in which the royal arms and badges 
were the centre-pieces of the composition. The part above the 
fireplace was divided by columns into three panels, of which 
the middle one was the largest, and contained the arms of 
Elizabeth with her red dragon as one of the supporters. Of 
the side panels, one was occupied by the rose crowned and the 
other by the portcullis crowned. In the smaller panels below 
these, and between] the pedestals on which the columns rested, 
were the royal initials E. R,, and a Latin sentence expressing a 
pious aphorism. It is not certain whether this house belonged 
to the Crown, or whether this display of regal heraldry was a 
compliment to the Queen on the part of the grateful owner. In 
either case the making of arms and badges the chief objects of 
interest in the composition, and the introduction of the Latin 
aphorism on a conspicuous panel are quite characteristic of the 
time. At Castle Ashby, in Northamptonshire, is a chimney- 
piece (Plate LXVI.) treated in much the same way as that from 
Bromley. It was not designed for the house, and therefore the 
heraldry is not so apposite as usual. The central panel contains 
the arms of the owner set in an elaborate framework of fanciful 
carving. On either side is a niche containing a figure of one of 
the virtues. The columns which support the cornice are richly 

« S 

W w 


« < 

ri.ATK Lxvr. 





carved in low relief, as also are the mantel-shelf and the friezes 
below it. On the lower of the friezes the family arms are 
repeated, and in the centre is the crest. The opening of the 
fireplace is flanked on either side by a female figure, which 
changes in a provoking way into strap-work and the semblance 
of a pilaster. The whole effect is rich, and the principles 
dominating the composition are at once recognizable, but the 
details are too fantastic to be quite agreeable. 

-Ckiling ok the Presence Chamber, Hampton 
Court (cir. 1535). 


Of all the architectural work of the time of Elizabeth and 
James, that which was peculiarly English is to be found in the 
ceilings. It was a development of native tradition, and although, 
like all other work 
of the time, it was 
influenced by Italian 
models, it retained its 
individuality with 
great tenacity, and in 
no other country can 
the same special de- 
velopment of design 
be found. The root- 
idea of an Elizabethan 
ceiling is to cover the space with a shallow projecting rib forming 
a more or less regular pattern. The ribs varied in section, and 
the patterns varied in form. The ribs and the panels they 
enclosed were sometimes perfectly plain, sometimes highly deco- 
rated with modelled work ; and between these two extremes 
were infinite gradations — plain ribs and decorated panels, or 
plain panels and decorated ribs, the decoration varying from 
something quite simple to ornament of much elaboration. The 
plainest examples are sufficient to give character to a room, 
while the richest arc bewildering in the intricacy of the pattern 
and the minuteness of the detail. 

The origin of the idea is to be f(jund in the treatment adopted 
by the late Gothic joiners. When they had a large flat surface 
to deal with, the\- divided it into panels b\- moulded wood ribs, 
and they frecjuently covered the intersection of the ribs with a 
carved boss or with carved foliage. Their main lines, being 



formed of wood, were straight ; their panels rectiHnear and 
often rectangular, the whole treatment being suggested by the 
moulded constructional timber of earlier roofs. At Hampton 
Court, in the portions built by Wolsey and Henry VII I., there 
are .several ceilings of this kind still left. The ribs are arranged in 
simple geometrical patterns with straight lines. In the watch- 
ing chamber, at the end of the Great Hall, these ribs are of a 
fair size, both in width and depth, and at certain intersections 
they are bent downwards to form a pendant after the fashion 
prevalent in the stone vaulting of the time (Fig. 158). Some 
of the panels thus enclosed are adorned with a kind of indepen- 
dent circular boss formed of a wreath surrounding one of the 

159. — Bosses from Ceilings at Hampton Court. 

royal badges, or even the royal arms. These bosses are not 
carved, but modelled in papier mdche, or some similar sub- 
stance, and they, together with the wood ribs, are secured to 
the joists above. Two of these bosses are illustrated in 
Fig. 159, and it is in the wreaths of these comparatively unim- 
portant adjuncts that the only touch of the new fashion is to 
be found. 

Other rooms have ceilings of which the ribs are much 
smaller in depth and width : the ribs are again arranged in 
patterns with straight lines, and at their intersections there are 
four small leaves of lead nailed on, the whole junction being 
covered with a small plain wood boss, which forms the centre 
of the flower. At other intersections each of the four angles of 

Plate LXVII. 





the flat ceiling is occupied with a small modelled head in 
foliage, all of papier mdche ; one of these is also shown in 
Fig. 159. The four insertions taken together form a circle, 
which is di voided into four quadrants by the intersecting ribs 
(Fig. 160) ; and the whole arrangement is the first step towards 
the elaborate decoration which was afterwards introduced, 
when the facility with which plaster can be worked was 
recognized and acted on. 

Another, though somewhat similar, type of ceiling is to be 
found in a little room called Cardinal Wolsey's Closet ; but here 
the decoration is more general, and is founded more directly on 
the Italian manner (Plate LXVIL). The ceiling is divided by 
wood ribs into rectilinear 
panels of small size and simple 
design ; the intersections of 
the ribs are covered, in the 
manner already mentioned, 
with a plain wood boss and 
lead leaves bent down into 
the angles ; each panel is 
filled with Italian decoration 
modelled in papier mdche ; the 
whole is screwed up to the 
floor-joists above. The effect 
is very rich and elaborate. 
There is also a frieze on the wall 
which formed part of the design, 
although its precise relation to the ceiling can no longer be 
detected owing to modern alterations. The relation was pro- 
bably something like what we see to-day (Plate LXVIL), but a 
close scrutiny shows that the connecting links between the 
ceiling and the frieze have disappeared ; there must have been 
some kind of moulded cornice. There can be little doubt that 
the spacing of the panels in the frieze was made to agree with 
those of the ceiling, and that it had a moulding of some 
importance at the top to connect it with the ceiling, and corre- 
sponding to the border which it still retains at the bottom, 
on which is painted repeatedly Wolsey's motto " Dominus 
mihi adjutor." The panels in the frieze are ornamented in a 
manner corresponding with the ceiling panels, which all contain 
either a rose, or ostrich feathers the devices of Henry VIII. This 

160. — Patkra to a Ceiling at Hampton 



ceilinf^ is of great interest, because it is one of the earliest 
of a highly decorated kind left to us — for the Tudor joiners 
placed little, if any, decoration in their panels ; it is more 
Italian in manner than any other that survives, and it is formed 
of wood ribs and modelled filling, which were made elsewhere 
and then brought to the room to be fitted and fixed in position. 
From the occurrence of Wolsey's motto in the frieze, it is 
probable that this work was done by him ; it would conse- 
quently date prior to his death in 1530. Richardson, in his 
Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and James L, 
gives a large drawing of a ceiling in the Chapel Royal, 
St. James's, dated 1540, which is very similar in character to 

Wolsey's. It con- 
sists of small geo- 
metrical panels 
formed by wood 
ribs, enclosing 
rich designs in the 
Italian manner, 
among which the 
King's devices are 
constantly re- 
peated, together 
with the date, 
the initials of 
Henry and Anne 
of Cleves, and 
such mottoes as 
" Vivat rex," " Stet diu felix." If the latter aspiration were 
fulfilled, it certainly was not in conjunction with the wife 
whose initials are on this ceiling that the wished-for happi- 
ness was attained, for she was divorced in July, 1540; and we 
therefore incidentally learn that the ceiling must have been put 
up in the first half of that year. In addition to the ornament 
already mentioned the King's arms frequently occur. The ribs 
in this case are broader than those at Hampton Court, and 
they are ornamented with a running pattern cast in lead. 

These two ceilings are the most Italian in character which 
have survived. The type does not seem to have been generally 
adopted ; but it was rather a simpler one, founded more 
directly on Tudor methods, which was developed. The wood 

161. — Part ok thk Ckiling in thk Long Gallkry, 
Hauuon Hall, Dkrbvshire 

I ATK Lxviir. 





ribs were replaced by plaster, and in the more plastic material 
they were no longer kept in straight lines, but were curved 

into an infinite 


variety of pat- 
terns, more or 
less intricate. 
The intersec- 
tion s were 
sometimes, but 
not often, 
covered with 
foliage ; as a 
rule they were 
left bare, but 
where the pat- 
t er n 1 e ft a 
salient angle 
the lower 
membersof the 

moulding were carried out to form the stalk of some foliage, 
as may be seen in the long gallery at Haddon (Fig. 161), and 

also at South Wraxall 

'62. — Pakt ok a Coved Ceiling at Beckington Abbey, 

(Plate XL VI I.). The 
ribs, which at first 
were of a section simi- 
lar to that of their 
predecessors in wood, 
soon assumed other 
proportions : they in- 
creased in width and 
lessened in depth ; 
they sometimes ceased 
to have any mouldings, 
and became more like 
ribbons or straps, as 
in the example from 
Beckington A bbey 
(Fig. 162), but more often they retained their moulded edges, 
and were ornamented on the Hat face with a minute running 
pattern, such as that at Deeue Hall (Plate LXVIIL). and the 
" Reindeer " Inn, Banbury (Plate LXIX.). The strap-work ribs 

163. — CovKi) Ceiling, Hkckington Amhev, 




did not form such regular set patterns as the others : they 
enclosed a panel here and there, but wandered off into spirals 
and scrolls, and were emphasized at intervals by little orna- 
mental knobs, such as may be seen in the ceiling of the 
gallery at Charlton House, Wiltshire. It was by no means 
necessary for the ceilings to be flat. Indeed, this kind of 
decoration was exactly suited for application to coved ceilings 
such as that already seen at South Wraxall (Plate XLVII.), and 
that at Beckington Abbey (Fig. 163), where there is not only the 
main vault of the ceiling, but also a subsidiary cove at the side. 

^caie • op- (^' III" 1' 


164. — Part of a Ceiling from Sizergh Hall, Westmorland (now in Victoria 
AND Albert Museum). 

the curved face of which is ornamented with a variation of the 
principal pattern. The end wall of the room is also decorated 
in a similar way in the upper part where its shape is controlled 
by the curves of the ceiling. The example at Beckington 
Abbey is among the more formal of those where the strap- 
work type was employed ; there are panels of regular shape, 
and the scrolled ends balance one another. But in some 
instances the strap-work conformed in its course to no regular 
pattern at all ; it twisted and interlaced and bent itself back 
upon no system whatever, except that of covering the surface 
evenly, and of gathering itself into a knot or of surrounding a 


''^;^^^^i^y ^"^^^K >>, 








pendant at regular intervals, the result being that the most 
prominent features stand out in regular array from a mazy 
background that requires concentrated attention to follow. 
There is a ceiling of this kind among the many beautiful 
examples at Audley End. These erratic designs were used 


ioj. -Li.ii,.:... 1 Ko.i l;i.:, 1 iiAi.i, Hall, SnKoi'bHiKi-.. 

simultaneously with others of much severer character, where 
the pattern is of the simplest in structure, and richness of 
effect is derived from its frequent repetition, and from the 
ornament in the panels. Such an example is to be seen at 
Sizergh (Fig. 164), and others, slightly more elaborate, at 
Aston Hall (Plates LXX., LXXI.), where the modelling is beau- 
tifully delicate and varied. But in both these examples the 



proportion is so carefully managed that the shape of the panels, 
which is the foundation of the design, is not obscured by the 
patterns which occupy them. The effect is equally rich in both, 
although the width of the rib and the manner of its decoration 
are varied. These ceilings are fairly late in date, as Aston Hall 
was being built from 1618 to 1635, and comes quite at the end 
of the period under discussion, but they retain all the charac- 
teristics of Elizabethan and Jacobean work. Another example 

166. — Ckiling in Gate-holsk, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire. 

of the formal kind is at Benthall Hall (Fig. 165), where the 
main panels are all of oblong rectangular shape, and are filled 
with strap-work enrichment surrounding an elliptical boss. 
The patterns are varied in every case, and exhibit considerable 
ingenuity in obtaining the same general effect with entirely 
different disposition of lines. It will also be seen, by comparing 
this ceiling with the panelling and chimney-piece in the same room 
(Plate XLUI. and Fig. 156), that they are all en suite, and not, 
as is often the case, designed without relation one to the other. 

■/■•yV «. •myyS^nW gnm^irff /o Sti; 


li. Q 

a . 
z (0 


The ceiling at the " Reindeer" Inn, Banbury (Plate LXIX.), is also 
thoroughly Jacobean, although, from the style of the wood panel- 
ling, the room must date from well on in the seventeenth century. 
Soon after this time the large unbroken space of the ceilings 
began to be cut up into large panels by cross-beams : the 
spaces thus formed were still of considerable size, and were 
decorated in the old manner, as may be seen in a room in the 
entrance tower at Haddon (Fig. i66), and at Carbrook Hall, 
Sheffield (Plate XLII.). But it was an easy step to omit this 
surface decoration, and when that was done, the ceilings 
became the large coffered ceilings characteristic of the style 
which followed the Jacobean. 

As in the chimney-pieces, so in the ceilings, a favourite 
method of ornamentation was to introduce the owner's arms 
and badges. Of the 
examples given here 
only two, as it hap- 
pens, illustrate this 
custom — the ceilings 
at Haddon (Fig. i6i) 
and Sizergh (Fig. 164), 
The square panel at 
Haddon encloses a 
shield surrounded by 
a delicate strap-work 
border, and bearing 
the arms of Manners impaling Vernon, the work having been 
done by the Sir John Manners who came into possession 
of Haddon through his marriage with Dorothy Vernon, one 
of the co-heiresses of her father, Sir George, called the King of 
the Peak. At Sizergh one of the panels encloses a shield of 
arms, and others a badge. 

There is a very splendid ceiling in the gallery at Blickling, 
in Norfolk, wherein various badges arc introduced, and another 
at Apethorpe, in Northamptonshire. Others might be named, 
but the custom was not so widespread in the case of ceilings 
as of chimney-pieces, perhaps owing to the plasterers having a 
number of stock designs from which they worked, and which, 
of course, would not include the arms of any special family. 
There seems no doubt that the plasterers did have such stock 
designs, but it is curious how seldom they are f(MUid repeated ; 

167. — Pendants of Pi.astkr Ceilings. 

1 82 


hardlv anywhere, indeed, can two desij^jns be found which are 
exactly alike. 

Besides heraldic ornament, there was a certain amount of 
modelled fi^^^ure subjects of the usual kind — allegorical, mytho- 
logical, and scriptural ; but English plasterers were not very 
good at modelling the human figure, and it seems to have been 
generally recognized that a ceiling is not the most favourable 
position for a close study of detail, and the effect aimed at was 






168. — Examples of Plastkr Frikzes from Montaclte, Audlky Enb, and 
Charlton House, Wiltshire. 

one of general richness which did not demand minute investi- 
gation — such as, for instance, is necessary to appreciate one of 
\'errio's painted ceilings — and yet which repaid such scrutiny 
if subjected to it. Most of the ornament was of a kind which 
no one would examine unless specially interested — as a 
draughtsman, for instance, might be ; but in some cases the 
beautiful modelling induces even the casual visitor to put his 
neck to inconvenience, as he gladly would do to see the Fish 
ceiling at Audley End, where the panels enclose a number of 
excellently modelled fishes and other denizens, real and 



imaginary, of the ocean, and where the pendants are of unusual 
beauty. Pendants of more or less projection were another 
means of adding variety and interest to the design (Fig. 167), 
and they varied in size from a mere excrescence to an elaborate 
shaft, supported by figures half human, half foliage, which 
served to hang the lamp from. This shaft would onl}^ occur in 
the centre of the design, but the lesser pendants were introduced 
at regular intervals and accentuated its salient points. Another 
kind of ceiling had no considerable ribs at all, but was covered 



with a flowing pattern in low relief, so arranged as to fall into 
a more or less symmetrical design. This is by no means a 
usual form, but there is an example at Burton Agnes, in York- 
shire, and another, which stands halfway between the two 
ideas, in the gallery at Chastleton, in Oxfordshire. 

At the junction of the ceiling and the wall was a series of 
mouldings forming a cornice : these were sometimes in wood 
and formed the crowning member of the oak panelling, and 
sometimes they were in plaster. Beneath them on the surface 
of the wall there was frequently a plaster frieze of more or less 
depth. Occasionally it was only a few inches deep, as in the 

K.A. N 



drawing-room at Haddon (Plate XLL), but more usually it was 
from two to three feet, and in one room at Hard wick it was 
much deeper, as already mentioned (see Plate LID. The 
narrower friezes were ornamented with some kind of running 
pattern, the wider ones were divided 
into panels in various ways, and often 
displayed the family arms. Examples 
of the narrower kind in plaster may be 
seen on Plates LI II. and LXXVL, while 
others forming part of the panelling 
are shown on Plates XLIIL, XLVIL, 
and XLIX. Sizergh Hall (Plate L.) 
has a frieze on the wood panelling and 
another in plaster above it. Examples 
of different kinds of friezes are given in Fig. 168, and one 
of considerable depth, and adorned with shields set in large 
panels, is shown from Montacute (Fig. 169). A fairly deep 
frieze is to be seen at Carbrook (Plate XLIL), of which a small 
part of the detail is shown in Fig. 170. An example of the way 
in which a pattern was fitted into an unusually-shaped space is 
shown in Fig, 171. 

-Part of Plaster Frieze, 

Carbrook Hall, near 


-Ceiling of a Triangular Bay Window at 
Little Charlton, Kent. 




The staircases of the early part of the sixteenth centur}- 
followed the old fashion, and were of the "corkscrew" type, 
winding round a central newel. They were built of stone or 
brick, and were hardly, if at all, ornamented. Then, quite 
suddenly, the fashion changed, and they were constructed of 
wood in straight, broad flights, with frequent landings. Everyone 
who has been up a church tower knows how tiring it is to 
climb the winding, never-ending steps, unrelieved by an3'thing 
in the shape of a landing. It is somewhat less fatiguing to 
mount one of the grand circular staircases of the chateaux 
on the Loire, the task being lightened by the greater width 
of the steps and the introduction of more frequent landings. 
But the management of the landings is one of the great 
difficulties in a spiral staircase, because they break the regular 
sweep of the architectural lines. Whether English craftsmen 
recognized this difficulty from what they saw in Erance, or 
whether the idea of improving the circular type did not occur 
to them, it is impossible to say; but no attempt in this direc- 
tion was made, unless it may have been at Rothwell Market- 
house (1577), where a circular staircase of considerable widtii 
was intended, although no remains of the actual stairs exist. 
There seems to be no intermediate type between the stone 
spiral and the straight flight in wood. In I'rance, and especial!}- 
in the district of the Loire, the old narrow, difficult steps were 
wonderfully iinpn^ved ; from being merely a means of ascending, 
they became elaborate pieces of work, upon which much inge- 
nuity of contrivance and ornament was bestowed. I'rom being 
two or three feet wide, they became ten or twelve. Instead of 
curling up a narrow turret, they occupied a considerable tower, 
and the t(^wer, being one of the chief features of the house, had 
to be treated with great care. Much fanc}' was expended upon 
the internal treatment ; a handrail was wcnkcd upon the newel, 

N 2 


fki:nch staircases. 

and wound round it in a continuous line ; another projection 
formed a plinth, a third served as a cornice ; another cornice 
followed the sweep of the steps where they rested on the outside 

172. — Staiki ASK AT Lvvi;i)i;n Oi.i) Building, Nokthamptonshikk. 

wall : everythinj:; was done to make the constructional features 
serve as ornaments, and the results were some of the most 
interesting and curious pieces of stonework that can be seen. 
pHit nothing of the kind was attempted in England. The 

Plate LXXII. 




173. — Details of Staikcase, 
Hambleton Old Hall, Rutland. 

nearest approach is the stone vaulted 

staircase at Burghley House (Plate 

LXXII.), which resembles some of 

those in France, where the steps are 

carried in straight flights instead of 

round a central newel. There is 

such an instance at the Chateau de 

Chenonceaux, where the two straight 

flights are on either side of a dividing 

wall, the lower flight merging into the 

upper by means of winding stairs. 

These winding stairs were eschewed 

by English designers, who nearly 

always kept to straight runs, and at 

Burghley the two main flights are connected by a shorter one 

across the landing. The date of this staircase is not quite certain, 

but it probably 
belongs to the 
work which was 
being done about 
the year 1556. 
The idea of stone 
vaulted stairs, 
however, did not 
obtain any hold in 
England, and 
there are very few 
examples to be 
found. All the 
finest staircases 
are of wood, and 
they seem to 
have sprung into 
being without any 
gradual growth ; 
the connecting 
links between 
them and the old 
corkscrew type, if 
there were any, 

174.— Staikcase from East Qlantcm kshkad, Somkkskt. ha\'e disappeared. 



The principle upon which these wood staircases were con- 
structed may be compared to that of the ladder, where the 
sides of the ladder are replaced by deep and comparatively 
narrow pieces of wood called "strings," and the rungs are 
replaced by the treads and risers. One side of this amplified 
ladder was placed hard on to the wall, the foot of the other was 
secured into a stout upright post, or " newel," as also was the 
top : into the same newel that received the top of the first 

175. — Dktails ok Staircask, Lyvedkn Old Building, 

String the foot of the second was secured at right angles, and 
so onwards and upwards as far as the staircase extended. At 
about two feet above the top of the string, and parallel to it, 
was the handrail, and between the handrail and the string were 
fixed the balusters. The top of the first flight leant against 
a flat landing, on which also the foot of the next flight rested. 
The construction, therefore, was extremely simple in principle, 
far simpler than that of the continuous winding flights of the 
eighteenth century ; but the component parts were often 
highly decorated. All the woodwork was of fairly large dimen- 
sions; the newels were six, seven, or eight inches square, the 
handrail was generally nearly as wide as the newel, the strings 
were three inches thick or even more, the balusters were 



proportionately massive. The flights were five or six feet wide, 

and comprised usuallyabout six steps, although 

they were longer when necessity demanded it. 

The plans on Plate LXXIII. show various 

arrangements of staircases taken from John 

Thorpe's collection of plans in the Soane 

Museum. Nos. i and 2 are the most usual 

types, and of these No. i is the more frequent. 

The space to be occupied by the stairs is 

divided into nine equal squares, of which 

those in the corners represent the landings, 

while the intermediate ones are occupied by 

the steps ; the middle square is the " well- 
hole." The staircase at Lyveden Old Building, 

in Northamptonshire, is planned on this 

principle, and the effect can be seen in the 

sketch in Fig. 172. The flights in this case 

consist of seven steps each. This arrange- 
ment is very simple, but it necessitates the 

access to the upper rooms being from one of 

the comparatively small corner landings. 

Another plan, giving a larger landing at the top, is shown in 

No. 2, and an ampli- 
fication of the same 
idea is given in 
No. 3, where, a larger 
number of steps 
being required, the 
sides have two 
flights with an inter- 
mediate landing. 
Sometimes the 
central square, in- 
stead of being occu- 
pied by an open 
well-hole, was either 
a solid block or a 
shell of masonry, 
round the four sides 
of which the steps 

ascended. Such an arrangement is shown in No. 5, where 

176.— Pierced 

S»^nm, onJ,„..CL> 

- ■ki*-yi i V r r r 

< f ^ f r r r r • . 

177.— Staircase at Manor House, 

I go 


also may be seen some winding steps in one of the corners ; 
but these winders are not of frequent occurrence, short straight 
flights being the rule. These four types are those most 
frequently adopted. Of the others, No, 4 is an instance of 
the employment of winders, and shows the somewhat unusual 

178.— Staircase at Ockwells Manor Hoise, Herkshire. Plans and Details 

arrangement of two lower flights combining into one upper 
flight ; No. 6, being in a turret, consists wholly of winders ; 
and Nos. 7 and 8 are instances of a rather grander style 
of planning, in which it is evident that considerable effect was 
aimed at. The plans varied, of course, according to the dis- 
position of the rooms to be reached ; the chief characteristics 



were simplicity of construction and massiveness of effect. 
In the less important houses the work was fairly plain : the 
newels were unornamented, except for a shaped top ; the string 
was moulded at the top and bottom ; the balusters were merely 
stout turned bars. But there was much variety imparted to 

-Staikcask at Hknthai.i. Hai.i., ShKOI'SHIKK. 

the turning, and while many of the outlines are rather clumsy, 
many of them also exhibit considerable subtlet}' and refine- 
ment. To increase the richness of effect the newels were 
ornamented either with carving, or with a pattern contrived 
by sinking the groundwork, thus leaving the jxittern itself 
raised and at the same level as the general face of the newel. 
The tops of the newel were sometimes little more than round 


'1" R i: AT M K N T () F N EW E LS 

knobs, as at Haiiibleton Old Hall (Fif^. 173), and a house at 
Warwick (Fifj^. 180) ; but more often they projected far above 
the handrail and were shaped in a variety of ways, of which 
four examples of varying de<jrees of elaboration are given 
from East Quantockshead (Fig. 174), Lyveden Old Building 
(Fig. 175), Ockwells Manor House (Figs. 177, 178), and the 

(Fig. 181). They 
were sometimes 
made the pede- 
stals upon which 
figures were 
placed — such as 
boys playing in- 
struments, as at 
Hatfield ; or 
warriors in 
various guises, 
as at Blickling; 
or the animal 
sacred to the 
particular family 
concerned, and 
hallowed in their 
sight by being 
borne in their 
coat of arms. 
The newels at 
the Charter- 
house carry a 
crest by way of 
finial (Fig. 
181). Then the 
outer surface of 
the outer string would be also carved (Figs. 179 and 181), 
or decorated with a pattern ; and the balusters would some- 
times be flat pieces of wood shaped and pierced in a variety 
of patterns (Fig. 176). Sometimes, instead of balusters there was 
a series of arches springing from small columns and following 
the upward rake of the stairs ; as at Ockwells Manor House 
(Figs. 177, 178), and the Charterhouse (Fig. 181). Or, again, 

iSd. — Staikcask at Wakwick. 



the balustrade would consist of woodwork cut and slightly carved 
into a version of the favourite strap- work pattern, like that 


at Benthall Hall, Shropshire (Fig. 179). Not infrt,'(juentl\- the 
space at command forbade the arranging of the flights at right 
angles to each other ; the second flight then returned side 


by side with the first. In such cases either the newels were 
increased in widtii sufficiently to take both the handrails, or 
the handrail and string intersected each other in the way 
shown on Fig. i8o. Occasionally, when a little space divided 
the flights, the great newels were carried up and joined to 
each other by wood arches, as in the instance of a stair- 
case at Audley End (Plate LXXIV.) : this kind of treat- 
ment occasionally produced a most intricate result, of which 
a careful study is required in order to make out what are its 
component parts. 

There was no end to the variety which the workmen 
imparted to the simple constructional features which were 
the groundwork of the design. The points which were always 
aimed at were breadth of way, ease of ascent, massive appear- 
ance, and very frequently richness of effect. The series of 
stout newels going up and up in a long procession, each 
crowned with a handsome finial or heraldic animal, alone 
is enough to lend stateliness to the staircase ; and when 
these are supplemented with quaint balusters, or a row of 
arches, or, as in later days, with a carved foliated filling, 
be}ond which is seen the highly ornamented string of the 
upper flight, the whole effect is particularly striking. As 
a rule the flights were short, from six to eight steps being 
considered enough between the various landings, but the 
number varied according to the height to be attained and 
the space at command. 

These fine staircases were clearly made for show as well as 
use, because it not infrequently happens that having reached 
the first floor, which was their chief object, they sweep 
upwards with equal grandeur to the next, where there are 
only insignificant attics. The upper staircase, however, 
although it leads to no important room, would be in full 
view of those who came to the first floor ; and it was on this 
floor that some rooms were placed which were the resort of 
all who were staying in the house — namely, the Great Chamber 
and the Long Gallery, The great chamber was, among 
princes and nobles, the presence chamber, where they received 
guests. It was the " Great Chamber of Estate." In smaller 
houses it answered much the same end as the drawing- 
room of the present day. Even so inconsiderable a person 
as Slender, who was a small squire, had a great chamber in 

Plate LXXIV. 



his house, which he took care to mention casually in the 
course of his controversy with Falstaff as to the picking 
of his pocket. 

The LonCx Gallery. 

The Long Gallery is a feature peculiarly characteristic of the 
times of Elizabeth and James. Mention has already been made 
of this apartment, and of the fact that not a few houses were 
specially planned so as to obtain a gallery of great length. 
Some of them were extravagant in this respect, the length 
being as much as eight and ten times the width. At Buckhurst 
House the gallery was 254 feet long by 16 feet wide, at Ampt- 
hill 245 feet by 22 feet, but it is not quite certain that these 
were not divided into two lengths each. John Thorpe shows 
the gallery at Slaugham Place to be 200 feet by 27 feet, Audley 
End probably 190 feet by 27 feet, Holdenby 140 feet by 22 feet, 
Aston Hall 140 feet by 18 feet, Copthall 136 feet by 22 feet, 
Burghley 128 feet by 18 feet, and WoUaton 100 feet by 18 feet. 
Others, to which there are no names, are 200 feet by 20 feet, 
150 feet by 25 feet, and 150 feet by 17 feet, besides many of 
80 feet in length by widths varying from 10 feet to 21 feet. 
The purpose of such a long apartment has never been fully 
explained : it may have been for exercise ; it may have had 
its origin from reasons of display or in imitation of royal 
palaces, where its use as an ante-room to the royal closet is 
easily understood ; or it may have been merely a development 
in planning dictated by fashion, each person vying with his 
neighbour to obtain a long room. But, however this may 
be, no Elizabethan or Jacobean house of any size was 
without its long gallery, which was ornamented in the same 
way as the great chamber, the parlours, and the hall. The 
walls were either hung with tapestry or panelled, the ceiling 
was richly moulded, the fireplaces, of which there were two 
or three in the length, were large and elaborate. The porch 
of the house was often carried up to form a bay window in 
the middle of the length, and advantage was taken of other 
opportunities to break up the extreme length by projections 
at the side. It was almost always on the topmost floor, 
where space was of less importance for other purposes ; but 
as many of the houses were only two storeys high, it was 
usually easy of access, and, of course, it was approached 


by one, or oftener two, of the principal staircases. The 
room at Haddon, now called the ballroom, is in reality the 
long gallery (Plate LXXV.). It is no feet 6 inches long 
by 17 feet 4 inches wide, and its extreme length is broken 
along one side by three large projecting bays, the middle one 
of which, measuring 15 feet by 11 feet 6 inches, is itself large 
enough for a fair-sized room. The legend of the elopement 
of Dorothy Vernon from this "ballroom " is a modern inven- 
tion which confuses the public mind in regard to the household 
arrangements of that period, for Dorothy's father, who greatly 
embellished Haddon, lived during the prevalence of the Late 
Tudor style, and had no such huge apartment : it was her 
husband who fashioned this long gallery in Elizabeth's time, 
and adorned it in the manner then prevalent. This may seem 
a small point to insist on, and to the general public no doubt 
it is ; but to the student, whose imagination naturally clings 
to the picturesque legend, it is important to realize that the 
work in the " ballroom " was not done by Dorothy's father, 
who belonged to the Tudor era, but by her husband, who 
belonged to the Elizabethan, But leaving this point, it may 
be remarked that the gallery is panelled with unusual richness, 
and the ceiling is felt to be in harmony with the rest of the 
work, although the moulded rib is but small, and the pattern 
it makes is simple. It may also be noted that there is but one 
fireplace in the whole length of no feet, which must have been 
quite inadequate, according to modern ideas. 

The gallery at Aston Hall (Plate LXXVI.) is a fine example 
of its kind. The walls are panelled from the floor nearly up 
to the ceiling, only sufficient space being left above the wood- 
work for a plaster frieze. The panels have an arched enrich- 
ment in each of them, in accordance with the fashion prevalent 
in King James's time, and they are divided into bays by shallow 
pilasters, fluted above, and ornamented with imitation rustic 
work below. The ceiling is of great richness, and itself goes 
a long way towards " furnishing " the room. There is a row 
of windows down one side, and a large one at the end. The 
Hall is now used as a museum, and the rail, which occupies 
a conspicuous position in the illustration, serves to protect the 
articles exhibited. 

Although it is tolerably certain that Sir George Vernon had 
no such room as the long gallery, it is not quite clear that 

« o: 








*— 3 










[ , 














:i ^ 

o , 



houses in his time were all without them, for at Hampton 
Court, in the time of Henry VHI. and Jane Seymour, there 
was the Queen's long gallery, which was 180 feet long by 
25 feet wide, lighted on both sides, and having, like Haddon, 
three bay windows down one side, the middle one of which 
was not square but circular.* But although the 
palace had such an apartment, there is no evidence 
that the smaller houses in general possessed them 
until the time of Elizabeth, when they became 
of universal adoption. 


The windows in the gallery at Hampton Court 
were glazed with heraldic glass displaying the 
arms, badges, and mottoes of the King and Queen. 
This was in accordance with the custom of the 
time, the principal windows being generally more 
or less filled with heraldic devices relating to the 
family who owned the house. Much of this 
splendid decoration throughout the country has 
disappeared, but enough is left to show that the 
treatment of the glass followed the same lines as 
the carving of stone and wood. In the early part 
of the century it consisted of dainty foliage, vases, 
candelabra, scrolls, and the quaint animals with 
attenuated bodies, which are characteristic of 
Italian ornament. Toward the end of the century 
these were replaced with the strap-work and the 
great bunches of fruit and flowers which we owe 
to Dutch designers. A small part of an early 
pattern from Ightham Church is illustrated in Fig. 
182 ; among the Italian vases and flowers is the 
English portcullis, the badge of the Tudor family, 
more particularly of Henry VII. A good example of the later 
treatment, when the Dutch strap-work was in vogue, is given in 
a panel from Moreton Old Hall on Plate LXXVTI. The strap- 
work is merely an ornamental border to the shield bearing tlie 
family device, and is treated in the same way as that which sur- 
rounds most of the shields on the tombs of the period. There 

182. — Portion 

OF Glazing 

FROM Ightham 

Church, Kknt. 

LiUC, Vol. I., p. 182. 



is a fair amount of sixteentli century glass to be found up and 
down the country, l)ut it is mostly in small pieces, either saved 
from thewreckof larger windows, or consisting of detached coats 
of arms. The finest dispki}- of the later glass that has survived 
is that in the dining-room of Gilling Castle, in Yorkshire, 

183.— Glass Paski. from one of thf, Windows at Gilling Castlk, Yorkshirf; (1585). 

where there are several large windows full of beautiful heraldic 
glazing. Much of it was the work of a Dutchman, Bernard 
Dininckhoff, who signs one of the panels with the date 1585 
(Fig. 183). The hall of the Middle Temple also has some good 
heraldic glass which is dated 1570. There were good English 
glaziers both before and after Dininckhoff's time. At Hengrave 
the old glass, dated 1567, was the work of Robert Wright, 

Plate LXXVII. 

GLASS panp:i. fkom moPvETon old hall, CHLSHIRE. 





who was paid £^ for the " making of all the glasse wyndows 
of the Manour-place, with the sodar, and for xiij. skutchens 
with armes."* In the year 1615 one Walter Gedde published 
a book of pattern glazing called " A Booke of Sundry Draughtes. 
Principally serving for Glasiers ; And not Impertinent for 
Plasterers and Gardiners: besides sundry other Professions. 
Whereunto is annexed the manner how to anniel in Gias ; 
And also the true forme of the Furnace, and the secretes 
thereof," in which he gives 103 pages of designs for lead 
glazing of varying merit, out of which four have been selected 
for illustration on Plate LXXVIII. Few, if any, of these designs 
have survived in actual execution ; such patterns as are still to 
be found here and there are somewhat simpler in design. It 
is mteresting to observe how Walter Gedde considered that his 
patterns would be useful to plasterers for the groundwork of 
their ceiling-designs, and to gardeners for the ornamental beds 
and knot-work with which they embellished their gardens. 

The finest examples of painted glass of the early part of the 
sixteenth century are the splendid windows at King's College 
Chapel, which were the work of Englishmen. There are also 
portions of the beautiful glass from the ruined Chapel of the 
Holy Ghost at Basingstoke, still preserved at the church of 
Basingstoke, and at the Vyne ; and there are three windows in 
the apse of the chapel of that house. In addition to these 
examples, there are several windows at St. Neot's Church in 
Cornwall, the character of which inclines more to the Perpen- 
dicular than the Renaissance; there is the east window of St. 
Margaret's, Westminster; and there are fragments at Balliol 
and Queen's Colleges, Oxford, and at St. James's, Bury St. 
Edmund's. + The ornament forming the background to the 
figures in these windows is all similar in character to that 
which adorns other work of the same period. 

* History and Antiquities of H engrave, by John Gage. 

t See The History 0/ Design in Painted Glass, by N. H. J. Westlake, 1894, in 
which are numerous drawings of portions of the glass mentioned in tlie text. 




The houses built in towns followed much the same lines as 
those erected elsewhere in general treatment, but the plan was 

of course restricted by 
the situation of the 
house, and by the fact 
that it could not derive 
light from the sides. 
The fronts were often 
constructed of wood 
and plaster, and the 
upper floors were cor- 
belled out over those 
beneath in the same 
fashion as had been 
customary for many 
years. Owing to the 
nature of their 
materials most of these 
houses have disap- 
peared through fire or 
decay. Others have 
been swept away in the 
improvements which 
inevitably accompany 
prosperity in a town ; 
others have been 
altered to suit the 
changes and develop- 
ment of trades. There 
are not many examples, therefore, to be found except in out-of- 

184. — House formeri.v in North Street, Exeter. 


the-way places, or in districts of large towns from which the 
main stream of business has been diverted. There are a few 
examples in the older parts of Bristol and York, for instance, but 
they have been much mutilated and altered. Some years ago 
there was an unusually good specimen in North Street, Exeter 
(Fig. 184), but it has now disappeared. Here the columns on 
the storey above 
the bays were 
good both in pro- 
portion and in 
general effect, 
and there was an 
unusual amount 
of richness be- 
stowed upon the 
carving of the 
corbels and the 
strings and cor- 
nices. Towns 
near the coast 
seem to have 
been richer in 
houses of this 
kind than those 
further inlaud. 
The Butter- 
market at Dart- 
mouth is a good 
specimen ; the 
first fioor is 
carried on 
columns, thus forming a covered walk ; the bay windows arc 
supported by boldly-carved corbels fashioned, some like fabulous 
animals, some like human figures. Ipswich has some excellent 
examples of carved strings and beams ; it was customar\^ to 
enrich the faces of the large beams which carried tlie {)r()jecting 
storeys, and a considerable amount of fancy in design and 
dexterity of execution were expended upon them. In the 
eastern counties generally there is some capital work to be 
foimd, both in wood and in modelled plaster. Cantcrl)ur\- has 



202 tri:atment of street fronts. 

a few remains, one of which, of somewhat late date, is shown 
in Fig. 185. The general treatment of the windows on the 
first floor is in accordance with Jacobean methods, but the 
handling of the boldly-modelled plaster-work above them 
points towards the latter half of the seventeenth century as the 
time of its execution. Two of the objects aimed at in these 
street fronts seem to have been to get plenty of light and to 
introduce bay windows. In the example from Canterbury, the 
whole front of the first floor is occupied with windows, and 

186. — Olu House, High Town, Hkrei-oru 

there are two bays introduced in the range which serve as large 
corbels to the straight front above them. Another example, 
from Oxford (Plate LXXIX.), also shows the whole front of 
two floors occupied by window space. But this front is gabled, 
and has one large bay window in the centre, which is covered 
by a broken pediment embracing a kind of dormer, all enclosed 
within the lines of the gable itself, which, however, has under- 
gone some alteration since it was first erected. The difference 
in the treatment of the arched lights in the several floors should 
be noticed. Another variety is to be seen in a house in Strat- 
ford-on-Avon (Plate LXXIX.), where the general disposition 


is rather simple, but all the woodwork is highly ornamented. 
The main beams which carry the projecting storeys are carved 
in the manner already mentioned as being prevalent at 
Ipswich. Here, again, there is a bay window on the first floor 
helping to carry the storey above it, and another projecting 
window on the top floor, the upper corners of which are hidden 
behind the barge-boards. The same general treatment is to be 
seen in an old house in the High Town at Hereford (Fig. 186), 
where the excellent effect is produced by very simple means. 
The woodwork of the framing is all straight, but it is massive, 
and not much less in width than the plaster panels. The upper 
storey projects far enough to give good shadow, which is varied 
by the shallow bays just beneath it. The gables have heavy 
carved barge-boards, and in each of them is a bay window, the 
top of which, unlike the example from Stratford, is free from 
interference by the barge-board. The pendants between the 
bays on the first floor are of the ordinary pierced pattern. In 
considering these specimens from busy towns, it should be 
remembered that they have all been more or less restored. 

The fashion of building with timber on the narrow streets 
of the time was felt to be dangerous, and in the year 1605 a 
proclamation was made in London that the fore-front and 
windows of all new houses within the city and one mile thereof 
should be of brick or stone. The old houses, however, were 
left until the great fire of 1666 swept them away: it was these 
charming half-timbered dwellings which afforded the chief fuel 
for that huge bonfire. 

In Thorpe's book there are several plans drawn for "London 
Houses." One (on page 18) is entitled "Three houses for the 
city, or for a country house at 8 parts to the inch." It shows 
a row of three houses, two of which have a frontage of 33 feet 
each, while the third has 24. The plans are very rough and 
unfinished, but they show alternative ways of providing the 
accommodation. One house has a hall and kitchen on the 
front, and a parlour, staircase and buttery at the back, while a 
" vault" is contrived in the centre in a most insanitary manner. 
The second has the hall and buttery to the front, the stairs at 
one side, and the parlour and kitchen to the back. The third 
(having only 24 feet of frontage) has merely an entrance passage 
and kitchen to the front, and a parlour at the back, while the 
staircase is opposite the front door — the plan being a forerunner 



of the type wliich later became of universal adoption. The 
second part of the title, indicating that the plan might be used 
for a country house, is rather obscure, inasmuch as no redistri- 
bution of names among the rooms shown could have converted 
them into a workable plan for a single house. Another plan (on 
pages 135, 136) is called a " London house of 3 breadths of 
ordinary tenements." It has a frontage of 51 feet, thus giving 

17 feet as the 
breadth of an 
ordinary tene- 
ment. With such 
a frontage, it is of 
course a much 
better house than 
those already de- 
scribed for the 
cit}'. It was en- 
tered at one end, 
the entry commu- 
nicating with a 
narrow yard 
which gave access 
to the garden in 
the rear. The 
hall looked out 
into the street, as 
also did the par- 
lour and buttery. 
At the back were 
the winter par- 
lour, the kitchen, 
and the stairs, 
with the larder 
under them. The 
rooms were not 
large, the parlour being 18 feet by 13 feet, and the winter parlour 
15 feet b\- 12 feet: as usual, much space was occupied by the 
large fireplaces. The first-fioor plan is not given, but on a 
higher storey appears an open leaded terrace along the street 
front,' behind which is a narrow and low gallery (only 5 feet to 
the rafters) extending the whole length of the house, and again 

1S7. — CoKBEi.s, ■• KiM.'s Arms, " Sandwich, Kk.nt. 



behind that there are ''sundry lodginf^s for servants, etc." 
There are no means of fixing the date of the plan, but it appears 

188. — Corbel at Cantkkblkv. 


to have been prepared for Sir Thomas Lake, who was clerk to 
the signet in 1595, and a Secretary of State in 1616. If we are 
to presume that a high official complied with 
the proclamation as to houses being of stone 
or brick, the date would be prior to 1605, for 
although the ground floor is shown with stone 
walls, those of the upper floor are only of wood 
and plaster. 

There is one other plan for a town house ; it 
is called *' A London house, Lady Derby, 
Channell Row " (page no). It is the plan of 
a much finer house than any of the fore- 
going, and as it is built round a courtyard, 
there were no special difficulties in providing 
light and air. It follows the usual type of large 
houses, having a central entrance, from which 
a flagged path leads across the court into the 
screens of the hall. The staircases, chapel, 
winter parlour, kitchen and other rooms are 
grouped round the court in the ordinary way, the only differ- 
ence being that those which cjccupy the sides of the court 
have no windows on their outside walls, but only such as look 
inwards into the court itself. The restrictions impcjsed by the 


—Corbel, Orton 



fact of the house being a " London house " are therefore very 
shght. The " Channell Row " where this house was built was 
probably the street of that name in Westminster. These plans 
of Thorpe's are of considerable interest, as they show the first 
steps taken towards developing a plan suitable for the confined 
spaces available in large towns. 

Reverting to the smaller examples under consideration, we 

find that a great 
^ _^^. T" -^=™— =- .™,= variety was intro- 

duced into the 
corbels which 
carried the projec- 
ting floors; many 
of them were 
grotesques after 
the fashion of that 
on the " King's 
Arms " at Sand- 
wich, in Kent 
(Fig. 187), others 
were simpler, like 
the examples from 
Canterbury (Figs. 
188, 189), while 
others, like that 
from Orton 
Waterville, Hunt- 
ingdonshire (Fig. 
190), combined 
both ideas. But 
the characteristic 
common to them 
all is boldness, 
both of size and treatment. They generally had a spiral about 
them in one form or another, varied by foliage or projecting 
bosses, or some variation of the strap-work motif. The great 
corner-posts of such houses as formed the corner of a street were 
often wrought with a remarkable amount of care. They were not 
only of sufficient size to make suitable angle-posts, but they were 
brought out at the top in a diagonal manner in order to support 
the storey above, which overhung the lower one on both faces ; 

-The '"Swan" Inn, Lechladk, Glolcestekshire. 



an instance of this treatment may be seen in the example from 
Sandwich (Fig. 187). In some places it was customary not only 
to bring out the face of each storey beyond that of the one 
below, but to bring the whole house out over the footwalk. The 
Rows at Chester are a well-known example of this practice. 
The Long Row on the great market-place of Nottingham is 
another instance, but here the arcade has been almost entirely 
re-built, one of the last specimens of a Jacobean front having 
recently been removed in the course of making a new street. 

In stone districts the local material was chiefly employed, and 
all through the small towns and villages of Somerset, Wiltshire, 
Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire and Northamptonshire charming 
little examples, such as the "Swan" Inn at Lechlade (Fig. 191), 
may be found here and there. The idea is of the simplest- — a 
door in the middle, with a bay window on each side, crowned 
with a gable. But the disposition of the small windows, the 
treatment of the door, and the change from the canted side 
of the bay to the square base of the gable afforded opportunities 
for variety and for careful treatment sufficient to render these 
minor examples well worth attention. 

Makket-Hol'ses, Schools, Almshouses, &c. 

Most ofthe work of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries 
which has come down 
to us is to be found 
in houses ; but there 
are a certain number 
of other buildings 
left, such as town- 
halls, market-houses, 
schools, and alms- 
houses. Of alms- 
houses,or hospitals, as 
they are often called, 
there are some excel- 
lentexamplesin man\- 
parts of the country. 
Ford's Hospital, in 
Covenfrv built in "-'^' — '^'■•^'^ ■^' Ai.mshousk. Cohsham, Wii.rsHiKi:. 

1529, is an extremely good specimen (jf Late Gothicwoodwork; St. 



193. — Ai.MsHoLSKS, Chii'I'ing Campden, Gloucestkkshikk. 

John's Hospital, Rye, is another. The almshouses at Corsham, 
in Wiltshire, are not only very picturesque outside, but con- 
tain some capital 
woodwork inside, 
of which a read- 
ing-desk IS illus- 
trated in Fig. 192. 
Another set, 
equally substan- 
tial and of greater 
extent, is to be 
found at Chipping 
Campden, in 
(Fig. 193). The 
work in these 
places is simple 
and substantial ; 
there is no display 

194. — Makkkt-koisk, Sni<i:wsi;iRV. r j. „ 

01 ornament, un- 
less perhaps over the entrance, where the donor would place his 



arms with a certain amount of flourish, partly in carving, partly 
in inscription ; there are no elaborate ceilings nor chimney-pieces, 
but tables, desks, and chairs of careful design and workmanship 

195. — MaRKKT-HOL'SF., \\^ \foMin,\M, .\(>l;jolK (ini . 

have survived in places, and these simple buildings are often 
valuable in affording examples of plain, unpretentious work. 

There are not many town-halls of this period to be found. 
Civic life did not express itself in concrete form in nearly so 
pronounced a manner as, for instance, in the Low Countries 


during the period under consideration, and as it is doing at home 
at the present day. The most striking example of a town-hall 
of the time is the picturesque Guildhall at Exeter, which 
has a richly-ornamented front projecting over the pavement 
and carried on arches. But there were a great many market- 
houses built. The finest of these, so far as design and 
workmanship go, is the well-known Market-house at Rothwell, 
presented to the town about the year 1577 by a neighbouring 
squire, Sir Thomas Tresham, but left unfinished owing to the 
donor being harassed on account of his zeal as a Roman 

i<j6. — Makkkt-housk, Chipping Campdkn, Glolcksi i;i<siiii<k. 

Catholic. Like most market-houses, this building was to have 
consisted of an open market-hall on the ground floor, with a 
room over it. There is a good example on a larger scale at 
Shrewsbury (Fig. 194), substantially built in stone, with mul- 
lioned windows and an ornamental parapet. The ground floor 
serves as a covered market, and the upper floor is carried 
on open arches. At Wymondham, in Norfolk, is a smaller 
specimen (dated 161 7), serving the same purposes, but it is 
built of timber and plaster (Fig. 195). The upper floor stands 
on stout posts and brackets, set some two feet within the 
Outside face, and is approached by a quaint wooden staircase. 


There is a one-storey market-house at Chipping Campden 
(Fig, ig6), built of stone, with arches on each side; the five 
down the long side are supported on pillars, and have a gable 
over every alternate arch, while the two at each end are divided 
by a short length of wall and have a gable over each, thus 
securing a pleasant variation of treatment : the detail through- 
out is quite plain. There were also a few market and village 
crosses erected at this time, but there are not many examples 
to be found: one of the best is at Brigstock, in Northampton- 
shire (Plate 
LXXX.), where 
its situation in 
an open space, 
and backed by 
stone -built and 
thatched cot- 
tages, renders it a 
quaint and plea- 
sant feature. The 
shields at the top 
bear alternately 
the royal arms 
and Elizabeth's 
initials, E. R., 
with the date 

During the 
reign of Edward 

VI. a large ^')7- Sdiooi. at Bukton Latimek, Xukmiami'tonshire 

numberof schools '^' 

were founded, and there are numerous examples left of those 
built during the next fifty years. There is a good specimen of 
the late sort at Shrewsbury ; and of the smaller kind, such as 
were founded in villages, that at Burton Latimer, in North- 
amptonshire, is one of the quaintest (Fig. 197). Its features 
are quite simple ; muUioned windows, on which are inscribed 
the date 1622, and the names of donors or, as we should now 
call them, subscribers; steep gables with linials at the foot; 
the ordinary excellent chimney of the district, and a rather 
elaborate doorway surmounted by a curved gable ; such arc 
the means employed to produce this attractive little building, 


Of other kinds of buildings, which come under no class 
because there were so few built, may be mentioned the pretty 
little mill at Bourne Pond, near Colchester, and the Hawking- 
tower in Althorp Park, Northamptonshire. The former 
(Fig. 198) is built chiefly of flint, but mixed with the flint 
are bricks, tiles, and stones. The stone embellishments are 
somewhat elaborate and varied, and the curious curved and 
broken outline of the gables points to the Low Countries as 

the source of its 
birth. The mill 
is dated 1591, and 
bears the arms of 
its founder, who 
was a citizen of 
the adjacent town 
of Colchester. 
The Hawking- 
tower at Althorp 
is probably 
unique (Fig. 199). 
It was built by 
Robert, Lord 
Spencer, in 1612 
and 1613, and is 
said to have been 
erected by him as 
a token of grati- 
tude for having 
been raised to 
the peerage ; but 
if so, the acknow- 
ledgment fol- 
lowed the event at an interval of ten years. There is no 
suggestion of the kind in the only inscription upon it, 
which runs thus, "This Staninge was made by Robert Lord 
Spencer 1612 et 1613." It not only bears the arms of Lord 
Spencer, but also those of the sovereign, very cleverly modelled. 
The plan (Fig. 200) comprises on the ground floor an entrance, 
a room with a fireplace, and a staircase, which leads up to 
the floor above, where the walls were pierced with a number 
of arches, through which the spectators could watch the sport. 

198.— Mil. I, AT BouHSE Pond, Colchester, Essex (1591). 



These arches have been built up in order to render the place 
habitable, and one or two rooms have been added at the back 

199.— Hawkino-towkk, Ai.thorp Park, Nohthamftonshirk (1O12 — 13) 

with a like purpose, but a little care enables the orif^inal 
arranfjjements to be made out with 
tolerable certainty. 

At Scole, in Norfolk, a very curious sur- 
vival of the old classical motifs was to be 
seen, till the end of the eighteenth century, 
in a great sign erected in 1655 for the 
" White Hart "' Inn (Fig. 201). The hart 
itself lies couchant on the middle of the 
main beam, beneath a pediment sup- 
ported by Justice and Plenty, two quali- 
ties for which the h(jst may be excused 
if he considered his h(^use noted. On one side (jf the: centre-piece 
stands .Actfeon, about to be tcjrn in pieces b\- his dogs, to whom 

2(K). — Ha\vkin<;-towkk, 
Ai.THoKi' Park, Northamt- 

TONSHIRK (161^ — 13). 




201. — The Sign of thk "White Hart" Inn, formerly at Scole, Norfolk (1655). 

he is supposed to be addressing the Latin legend beneath 
him : " I am Actaeon, know your master." On the other side 
stands Diana, and beyond her is Time, about to devour his child, 
beginning with its hand ; beneath him his identity is made quite 
clear by the sentence " Tempus edax rerum," In the frieze 
below the beam are two figures representing (probably) Bacchus 
and Gambrinus, supported on either side by coats of arms. 
Angels and lions hold further coats of arms. There is Cerberus 
with his three heads, while numerous bunches of grapes, men 
blowing horns, and other devices suitable to the purpose occupy 
the rest of the space. The whole design might have come 
from the fertile brain of George Gascoigne, who was responsible 
for most of the entertainments at Kenilworth when Queen 
Elizabeth paid her celebrated visit there nearly eighty years 
before this sign was erected. The fundamental idea which 
underlay all design of the time was to combine strong classic 
feeling with picturesqueness of expression. 



Work in Churche?. 

It has already been stated that there is no ecclesiastical 
architecture of early Renaissance character in England. There 

202>— ClIICHKSTKK ToMIl, I'lLTON ChuKCH, Dk\()N.SIII RK (1566). 

were a number of churches built diu-ing the first thirty years 
of the sixteenth century, but they are all Gothic in treatment. 
The intluence of the Renaissance on certain features to be 
found in churches, such as chantries and tombs, has already 
been dealt with. It remains to glance at the changes that 

K.A. V 



occurred in church fittinj^'s as the century grew older. Although 
no churches, or extremely few, were built after the Dissolution 
of the Monasteries, still the Elizabethan and Jacobean squires 
were not backward in embellishing the ancient structures, and 
there are plenty of screens, pulpits, font-covers, and particularly 
tombs, to be found all over the country, although it cannot be 
denied that under the influence of the revival of Gothic feeling 
which took place about fifty years ago, a great deal of Eliza- 
bethan and Jacobean work was either destroyed, or removed 
to the vestry, into which confined space it was made to fit by 
a ruthless exercise of the axe and saw. 

203.— From one of the Foljambe Tombs, Chesterfield Church, Derbyshire (1592). 

The progress of style in tombs has already been traced to a 
certain extent in dealing with the early stages of the Renaissance 
movement. It has been shown how the old idea of the altar 
tomb, with recumbent figures, lingered on till quite late in the 
sixteenth century. In the closing years, however, it became 
fashionable to place the figure, still recumbent, beneath an 
arched canopy, upon which was lavished an extraordinary 
amount of ornament. The arch itself was coffered and adorned 
with bosses and stiff flowers of various kinds. It was flanked 
with columns which carried an entablature, above which again 
rose a superstructure displaying the family arms, and so designed 
that with its supporting obelisks and detached figures it formed 
a more or less pyramidal finish. The back of the tomb 



above the figures, and enclosed by the arch, was usually 
occupied by a tablet setting forth the name and qualities of the 
defunct person, together with his alliances, if they were thought 
at all worthy of 
record ; and round 
this tablet was a 
frame of strap- work 
of intricate design 
filling up the re- 
mainder of the 
space, and decked 
with all manner of 
delicate ribbons 
and garlands. In 
every suitable 
place appeared the 
arms of the chief 
person concerned, 
or those of his wife, 
or some notable 
family to which 
they were allied. 
The whole monu- 
ment was brightly 
coloured, where the 
use of different 
kinds of marble did 
not render such 
embellishment un- 
necessary, and the 
effect was striking 
in the extreme. 
The nobleman and 
the squire of Eli;ia- 
beth's days had 
each a very high 
opinion of his family, and of his own importance in the scheme of 
the universe, and nothing would have pleased him better than to 
see the monument under which he was buried. Some of these 
great tombs are pretentious in idea and poor in design, but some 
of them are full of delightful detail, consistent in scale, varied in 

r 2 

204. — loMii OK G. KkbI) (1). 1610), Hkkdon Chukih, 




treatment, and beautifully modelled. There is a good example 
in the Chichester tomb at North Pilton, in Devonshire (Fig. 202), 
which departs from the usual arched type, and which, if it were 
erected soon after the death of those whom it commemorates, 
in 1566, is quite an early example of the use of strap-work. 
The detail of this monument, shown on Plate LXXXL, is 
of unusual delicacy, and the elaborate frame which encloses 

the black marble 
panel is handled 
with a delicacy 
and lightness of 
touch too seldom 
met with. The 
Foljambe tombs 
in Chesterfield 
Church, Derby- 
shire, are treated 
with considerable 
originality. One 
of them (dated 
1592) is in the 
form of a sar- 
cophagus, and is 
adorned with 
beautifully model- 
led carving (Fig, 
203). These ex- 
amples are of un- 
usual excellence. 
The tomb in 
Bredon Church 
(Fig. 204) to G. 
Reed, who died 
in 1610, and that in the Spencer aisle at Yarnton (Fig. 205) to 
Sir William Spencer, who died in 1609, are specimens of the 
ordinary treatment of arched monuments. As time went on 
this kind of tomb became much coarser in design. The detail 
was less refined, and the recumbent figures were placed no 
longer in a simple and dignified attitude, with faces turned 
towards the sky and with hands folded in the attitude of 
prayer; but they were placed awkwardly on their sides, leaning 

205. — Tomb of Sik Wm. Spencer (u. 1609), Yarnton 
Church, Oxfordshire. 



Plate LXXXII. 




on their elbows, sometimes lodged in precarious positions on 
a kind of shelf, sometimes with cheek resting on the hand, as 
though, in the words of Bosola in the Duchess of Malfi, " they 
had died of the toothache." All dignity and romance were 
eliminated from the work, and the Jacobean squire appeared 
in death what he frequently was in life — a very commonplace 

There were 
many screens 
erected during 
the early years of 
the seventeenth 
century. The 
finest specimens 
are at St. John's 
Church, Leeds, 
and at Croscombe 
in Somerset, near 
Wells, in both of 
which churches 
most of the wood- 
work is of this 
period, including 
the excellent oak 
seats. The 
general effect of 
the richly orna- 
mented wood- 
work at C r o s- 
combe, including 
the pews, the pul- 
pit, and the lofty 
screen, is unusu- 
ally striking. l>ut in many ciiurchcs in different parts of 
the country screens may be found of more or less impor- 
tance. A good example is illustrated from Tilney All Saints, 
in Norfolk, near King's Lynn (Plate LXXXIL), which bears 
the date 1618 in a little panel over tiie central arch. The 
design, it will be seen, is somewhat unconstructional, for 
the main posts of the lower part are not carried up to 
support the crowning cornice, but teruiinatc in obelisks. 

206. — Flmit, Worth Cmlk( ii, Slsskx (1577). 


leaving the cornice to be carried by turned balusters; the 
effect being to render the upper part rather insecure in 
appearance. There is a screen at Stonegrave, in Yorkshire, 
of simple but rather unusual design, in which the detail 
is very carefully managed. Although it is dated 1637, its 
general character places it in the category of Jacobean work. 

Of pulpits there 
were a large number 
erected in Eliza- 
beth's time, and still 
more in King James's, 
for in the canons of 
1603 a pulpit was 
ordered to be placed 
in every church not 
previously provided 
with one. Many of 
these have disap- 
peared, through de- 
cay or the fury of 
Gothic restoration, 
but there are still 
plenty left, of which 
several types are illus- 
trated. There is the 
elaborate one at 
Worth Church, in 
Sussex, dated 1577, 
built up with columns 
at the angles. The 
faces are occupied 
by niches containing 
figures of the Evan- 
gelists (Fig. 206), and 
the frieze above bears an inscription- in the Dutch language. 
On the panels between the pilasters of the lower stage is 
some of the applied carving, previously referred to in treating 
of panelling. 

There is a simpler form from Blythborough, in Suffolk 
(Fig. 207), which consists of panelling fram.ed together, all the 
framework and the panels themselves being covered with 

207. — Pulpit, Blvthborough Church, Suffolk. 

Plate LXXXIll. 

EDirjcroN Church 

Drawing or THE Pulpit. 

F.LtVATIO!<j n"~n^| 

7 ill I fr^^ ^ 'ft , iEJ 



fanel Mould. 



carving in low relief. The widelj'-projecting bookboard is also 
ornamented on the underside, and is supported by large carved 
brackets. The pulpit stands on four short posts let into a wood 
sill and supported by brackets. Another type is to be seen in 
Edington Church, Wiltshire (Plate LXXXIIL), of simple and 
elegant design. The octagonal body of the pulpit consists of 
plain moulded panelling without ornament ; the bookboard 
forms a cornice, 
which is slightly en- 
riched with dentils 
and carving. The 
whole stands on a 
single turned stout 
post, from the upper 
part of wliich spring 
brackets of simple 
form. There is a 
panelled sounding- 
board with a carved 
frieze and an acorn 
drop at each angle. 
The whole work ex- 
hibits unusual re- 
straints and refine- 
ment both of design 
and detail. Of some- 
what similar type, 
but rather more florid 
in detail, and pro- 
bably later in date, is 
the pulpit at Ches- 
terfield Church (Fig. 

JlX). — I'll. Ill, Cni;.STKKHKI,l) ClIUKCH, DkKHYSHIKK. 

Font-covers of the seventeenth century are also fairly 
numerous, and a few of them still retain the elaborate bracket 
from which they were suspended in order to be raised or 
lowered with little trouble. There is a good specimen of such 
a bracket at Pilton Church, in North Devon (Fig. 209), of 
which, however, the upper part, above the tilted hood, is of 
later date and coarser design : and there is a still finer example 
at Astbury Church, near Congleton, in Cheshire. 


Of the very few churches which were built during the 
century that succeeded the Dissolution of the Monasteries, 
the most important was St. John's Church at Leeds. 
There is nothing particularly striking in the treatment if 
we except the beautiful wood fittings. The plan consists of a 

double nave, divided 
by an arcade, and the 
stonework details are 
plain in character 
and of no great in- 
terest. It might have 
been expected that 
window tracery would 
afford opportunities 
to the ingenious 
masons of the time ; 
but either they clung 
to the old traditions, 
as did the masons 
employed by Nicholas 
Wadham on the 
c hapel of his college at 
Oxford, where in the 
>ears 1610 — 13, they 
produced windows of 
excellent Perpendi- 
cular character : or 
else they tried in a 
half-hearted kind of 
way to give to the 
tracery forms in keep- 
ing with those used 
elsewhere. Such an 
attempt was made in 
the church of Kelmarsh, in Northamptonshire (Fig. 210), but it 
had not much to recommend it, nor were other efforts — in the hall 
at Wadham and a few other places — of such singular success 
as to lead further in this direction ; and the call for church 
windows being very limited, no development worth mentioning 
occurred. The most noteworthy attempt to give a new cha- 
racter to window tracery was made in later years (subsequent 

209. — Font Canofv, Pilton Chlkch, Ukvonshire. 



to 1634) at the chapel at Burford Priory, Oxfordshire, where 

tracery founded on ancient precedents, but following lines of 

its own, was surrounded by a 

fully-developed classic arciii- 

trave. Elizabethan and 

Jacobean detail lingered on 

in out-of-the-way places long 

into the seventeenth century, 

and at Compton Winyates, in 

Warwickshire, the church, 

which was rebuilt in 1663, 

has some quaint little bits of 

stone detail (Fig. 211), in 

which the old forms have not 

yet been replaced by the more 

strictly classic features which 

were being more and more 

generally employed. 

Another instance of the 

survival of ancient forms is to 

be seen in the woodwork in 

the chapel at Peterhouse, 

Cambridge (Fig. 212), where 

Jacobean balusters of elegant 

contour surmount panels treated in the Gothic manner and 

finished at tiie top with cusping and foliated spandrils. The 

date of this door is about 

There are not many speci- 
mens of ornamental plaster 
ceilings to be found in 
churches, but at Axbridge, 
in Somerset, there is such 
an instance in the nave, 
where the ceiling is in the 
form of a pointed barrel 
vault, with plaster ribs 
springing from a cornice 
adorned with strap - work. 

The ribs f(jrm a simple pattern consisting mostly of squares 

of different sizes, and there are large Jacobean pendants and 

210. — Window, Kki.maksh Chukch, 
Northampton SHIRK. 

211. — i-rom c.'omi'ton wlnvatks chur(h, 



bosses at intervals; but out of deference to ecclesiastical tradi- 
tion, the square panels are ornamented with cusps, which give 

to the whole de- 
sign a rather feeble 
flavour of Gothic ; 
of its kind, how- 
ever, it is an in- 
teresting ceiling, 
and is one among 
many indications 
of the attention 
bestowed upon 
churches during 
the early years of 
the Reformation. 
Another indica- 
tion is the fre- 
quent presence of 
texts upon the 
walls. They are 
generally sur- 
rounded with an 
xiJiNi ornamental strap- 
nfi\ work border, such 
as roused the ad- 
miration of the 
narrator of an 
entertainment at 
Antwerp in 
honour of the 
Duke of Anjou in 
1581, when he 
commended the 
"compartments of 
Phrygian work, 
very artificially 
handled." These 
texts seem to have had their origin from a singular circum- 
stance. Queen Elizabeth attended service at St. Paul's on 
New Year's Day, 1561, and the Dean, thinking to present her 
with an acceptable New Year's gift, caused a number of 


Cambridge (cir. 1632). 


beautiful pictures representing the stories of the saints and 
martyrs to be handsomely bound in a Book of Common Prayer, 
which he laid upon the Queen's cushion. On opening it, how- 
ever, she frowned and blushed, and calling the verger to her, 
caused him to bring the old prayer-book which she had been 
accustomed to use. At the close of the service she gave the 
Dean a very uncomfortable quarter of an hour, for having thus 
gone counter to her proclamation against " images, pictures, 
and Romish reliques." He excused himself, according to the 
account, like a lectured schoolboy, and promised that nothing 
of the kind should occur again. In consequence of this incident 
there was a general searching of all the churches in and about 
London, and the clergy and churchwardens " washed out of the 
walls all paintings that seemed to be Romish and idolatrous," 
and wrote up " in lieu thereof, suitable texts taken out of the 
Holy Scriptures." 



One of the most valuable sources for obtaining knowledge 
of the house-planning of the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. 
is the collection of drawings in the Soane Museum, known as 
John Thorpe's. This collection has given rise to a certain 
amount of controversy, and will probably give rise to more, 
for there are so many objections to any theory which can be 
advanced as to its origin and use. This is not the place to 
enter upon the arguments for or against any particular view ; 
but as it may be advisable to adopt some kind of working 
hypothesis, that which best fits the facts seems to be this — that 
the drawings were drawn in a large book (with the exception 
of some few which were stuck in), and that by far the greatest 
number, if not actually all, were drawn by John Thorpe.* There 
were two men of this name, father and son, and both may have 
had a hand in it. But whether this hypothesis be accepted or 
not, it is certain that all the drawings were made during the 
closing years of the sixteenth centur\- or the opening years 
of the seventeenth, and that they represent either surveys of 
buildings then existing, or designs for new ones, or exercises in 
ingenuity of planning. Whatever else we may or may not have, 
we have here the Elizabethan and Jacobean ideas of what houses 
were or ought to be, what accommodation they should contain, 
and how it should be disposed. In this respect the collection 
is particularly valuable, because we get everything at first hand ; 
we see some designs in course of development, and others as 
they were finished, and entirely free from the manifold altera- 
tions which houses themselves have necessarily undergone in 
the course of three centuries. We also get in the elevations, 
or " uprights " as they were then called, the designer's ideas of 
how the houses were to appear ; but in this respect we do not 

* The arguments in support of this view are given in a paper by the author, 
published in the Architectural Review of February, 1899. 



fare, so well as with the plans, 
since the number of elevations 
is far smaller. 

There are, further, a few 
drawings which may be re- 
garded as studies — studies in 
perspective, in the five orders, 
and in the style of foreign 
architects. For there is no 
doubt that Thorpe studied 
books on architecture, both 
Italian, French, 
and Dutch, of 
which a consider- 
able number had 
been published 
during the latter 
half of the six- 
teenth century. 
His exercise in 
the five orders is 
evidently drawn 
from an Italian 
which, however, 
has not yet been 
identified. He 
has copied at least three designs 
from a French source, one of 
Androuet du Cerceau's books, 
" Lcs plus cxcellents basti- 
ments de France," published 
in 1576 — 79. One of these 
designs is the Chateau of 
Anssi-le-I'"ranc, of which he 
gives the plan on page 75, and 
part of the elevation on page 
76. The plan is copied accu- 
rately except in one or two 
trifling particulars, and so also 
is the elevation (Fi^s. 2ij, 214); 



215. — Thk Chatkai- of Anssi-i.k-Fkanc, 


Thori'k's Hook). 

but to the latter he has 



added three sketches of turrets, which do not appear in the 
original, and which are designed in the Dutch rather than the 
French style. On each side of the plan he has sketched in 
pencil the main lines of another plan founded on the original, 

. ^ but which looks 

as though it were 
meant to be 
adapted to Eng- 
lish uses. An- 
other plan which 
he copied from 
Uu Cerceau (on 
pages ^T, 78) is 
the Chateau de 
Madrit in the 
Bois de Bou- 
logne. This is, 
with one little 
exception, line 
for line 
like the 
but, curiously 
enough, here 
again he has 
made notes in 
pencil indicating 
how he would 
have adapted it 
f o r English 
habi ts. The 
third instance 
is part of the 
plan and ele- 
vation of the 
" theatre " at Saint Germain (on pages 165, 166). 

Thorpe was also a student of Dutch publications. On page 24 
he has a design entitled " i a front or a garden syde for a noble 
man" (Fig. 215), of which the central portion is copied from 
Plate 20 of Jan Vredeman de Vries's " Architectura, ou Basti- 
ment prins de Vitruve," published at Antwerp in 1577. He 

r(<£ tJi/i^ 

214. — The Chateau of Anssi-le-Franc copied from Dl" 
Cerceau, hut with three Turrets added (page 76 of 
Thorpe's Book). 



has departed from the original in one or two small particulars ; 
for instance, he has four-light windows where Vries has two- 
light ; he has mullions to his dormers where Vries has none ; 
he has added the final flourishes and pinnacle on the top of the 
centre gable which Vries leav^es plain, and his treatment of the 
windows over the middle arch is different from Vries's ; but with 

J. A ■/r-'t- ■<■ •» Y^^'-Jy'^ T"' * 


these exceptions the original is followed faithfully as far as to 
the end of the arcade, to the left of which the design is Thorpe's 
own. Thorpe has written on the panel over the entrance 
" Structum ad impensum Dni Sara A" Dni 1600." This is the 
only drawing of his which has been traced to Dutch sources, 
but nearly all his elevations, of which a few are illustrated in 
this chapter, show some hankering after Dutch forms in the 
gables. On page 60 of his book he has a few sketches, chiefly 


of strap-work gables, which look as though they had been 
either copied from a Dutch book or inspired by one. 

This study of foreign books by one of the designers of the 
period is a noteworthy fact, and it is equally worthy of note 
that the study of them seems to have set him thinking, and to 
have suggested ideas to him, which he jotted down in pencil 
near the copies which he made from the foreign books. These 
are not the only instances of this habit, for in other parts of his 
book are to be seen, by the side of carefully finished plans, hasty 
sketches of some variation of the same main ideas. Of the 
foreign books which he studied, some, therefore, were Italian, 
some were French, and others Dutch : and it is curious to see 
how the French books seem to have influenced his plans, and 
the Dutch books his elevations. The French influence on those 
plans which, so far as we know, were actually carried out, was 
not strong ; but among the plans which may be classed as 
exercises, are some with towers at the corners, after the manner 
of those at Chambord, Chenonceau, and Azay-le-Rideau, and 
a number with square turrets such as those of the Chateau de 
Madrit. He may also have derived from the same sources his 
extreme love of symmetry, and his adoption of the grand 
manner apparent in some of his designs planned round a court- 
yard. These French books may, therefore, have influenced his 
style, but they did not dominate him so much as to cause him 
to cop3' the French type of plan in designing an English house. 
The same may be said of the Dutch influence on his elevations. 
Only in the one instance already mentioned did he embody 
a whole piece of Dutch design into one of his own. But in his 
chimneys, his strap-work gables, and his turrets or lanterns he 
drew from Dutch sources. And there are two points to notice in 
this connection — one is that the strap-work gable occurs much 
oftener in his drawings than in houses actually built ; the other 
is that had these gables been adopted as freely as the eleva- 
tions would indicate, the houses would have been more Dutch 
than the Dutchmen's own buildings, for in the latter the stepped 
gable is far more frequent than strap-work, and produces an 
entirely different effect. 

Let us, however, turn from these speculations to the drawings 
which compose the great bulk of the book — namely, the plans 
and (in some cases) elevations which show what kind of building 
an English house was intended to be, and which ought to be 

Plate LXXXIV. 


1. Hall. 

2. Vestibule. 

3. Parlour. 

4. Lodging. 


(pages 65, 66.) 

5. Grand Staircase. 

6. Chapel. 

7. Buttery. 

8. Butler's Room. 

g. Back Stairs. 

10. Lodging. 

11. Kitchen. 

12. Dry Larder, 

13. Wet Larder. 

14. Bakehouse. 

15. Open Arcade. 

16. Gatehouse, 


compared with the examples already given in Chapter III. 
The type of plan made familiar in those examples is the type 
on which nine-tenths of Thorpe's plans are based. The hall is 
the centre of household life, the parlour and family rooms are 
at one end of it, the kitchen and servants' rooms are at the 
other. But he has a certain number of plans in which the 
hall shows more or less signs of becoming an entrance rather 
than a living-room ; the following examples show how the old 
type gradually changed into the new. 

The first plan of the series (Plate LXXXIV.) is named " Sir 
Jarvis Clifton's House." It shows a large symmetrical house 
with a forecourt entered through an imposing gate-house fur- 
nished with a turret at each corner. Directly opposite to this 
lodge is the porch of the house, which gives access in the usual 
way to the screens, and thence into the hall, with its dais shown 
at the upper end. The bay window at the end of the dais leads 
into a large vestibule from which the great staircase and the 
parlour are approached ; beyond the parlour, at the corner of 
the building, is an isolated room marked " lodging" {i.e., bed- 
room). The left-hand wing is occupied by the chapel, which is 
approached through a vestibule leading out from the foot of the 
great staircase. This completes the accommodation for the 
family so far as the ground floor is concerned. On the other 
side of the hall are the servants' rooms : first, two for the butler 
with a staircase to the cellar ; then a large vestibule (with a 
servants" staircase), which leads to another "lodging"; to the 
kitchen, with a fine bay window and two fireplaces, one large 
and one small, each having a little oven close to it ; and to the 
dr\' larder : beyond the kitchen is the wet larder, and beyond 
this is the rest of the servants' department, of which the bake- 
house occupies a wing balancing the chapel wing. The mouths 
of the two ovens of the bakehouse are shown, but the paper was 
too small to allow their full extent to be indicated. There is no 
upper plan, but from notes on this one it seems that the long 
gallery was over the arcade at the back of the hall, and that the 
great chamber was over the parlour and its vestibule. There 
is an arcade on either side of the front porcii, and another 
between the wings on the opposite side of the house. It is 
worthy of note that although the front and back facades are 
of different lengths, each of them is symmetrical in itself. This 
variation is the result of considerable ingenuit\' in planning. 

K.A. u 



=7_=-zr=zf^ H 

216. — An Un-named Plan (packs 117, iiS 

1. Hall. 5. Buttery. 9. Pastry. 

2. Principal Stairs. 6. Winter Parlour. :o. Inner Court. 

3. Parlour 7. Back Stairs. n. Open Arcade. 

4. Lodging 8. Kitchen. 12. Outer Court. 


The whole plan is worth attention as a specimen of the usual 
type treated in a broad and dignified manner. 

The Cliftons had been seated at Clifton, near Nottingham, for 
some time prior to the reign of James I.; the family still resides 
there, but there is nothing in the existing house to connect it 
with this plan of Thorpe's. Sir Gervase Clifton lived from 1586 
to 1666, and was created a baronet in the year 1612. This plan 
must therefore have been drawn subsequent to that year, as it 
is entitled " Sir Jarvis Clifton's." There is nothing to show 
whether it is an original design or a survey of an existing house : 
the clean way in which it is drawn points to the latter assump- 
tion ; but if it is an original design it is interesting as showing 
at what a late date the old type of plan was still employed. 

The next plan (Fig. 216) has no title. It shows a house 
with a courtyard in front and two long wings at the back, 
forming a nearly square block. The arrangement follows the 
established lines : a porch leads into the screens and thence 
into the hall, which again has the dais indicated. Owing to 
the exigencies of the external treatment, the bay window is not 
placed at the end of the dais. A door between the latter and 
the fireplace leads into a vestibule with the chief staircase in it ; 
beyond is the parlour, with a bay window looking into a small 
courtyard, and beyond the parlour is another room. On the 
servants' side is the buttery with its stairs, and then the winter 
parlour, of which the bay window balances that of the hall. 
A vestibule containing the back staircase separates these rooms 
from the kitchen, which has a bay window looking straight 
across at the bay of the parlour ; beyond the kitchen are two 
rooms, the first of which is probably a larder, while the other is 
certainly, on account of the ovens, either the bakehouse or 
" the pastry." There is an arcade at the back of the front 
wing, occupying one side of the inner court. The fourth side 
of this court is enclosed by a wall, but the draughtsman has 
indicated it in two separate positions, thus making it appear as 
though there were a solid wing on this side. In this plan, 
also, the only indication of the upper floor is given in the 
note written on the hall, " Great chamber over this to y"" 
Skryne " (screen). 

The plan shown in Plate LXXXV. has no title, but it has 
the advantage of ha\ing every room named ; and its elevation 
is also drawn, which was not the case in either of the two 

y 2 


preceding examples. The plan follows the familiar lines ; it 
has a long narrow body, and at each end a long narrow wing at 
right angles to it, with a staircase turret at the internal angles. 
The porch and screens are in the usual relation to the hall, 
beyond which are the parlour and two "lodgings," each of 
which has a small inner room attached. The first of these 
lodgings is a thoroughfare room, but there is an external door 
in the passage connecting the two, which enables the hall to be 
gained bv crossing the court, thus affording an alternative route 
of a kind. On the servants' side of the house are the buttery, 
the pantry, the winter parlour, the larder, kitchen, bolting- 
house, and pastry. The kitchen has the usual small oven ; the 
pastry has the invariable two, one somewhat larger than the 
other. The two wings are treated symmetrically on the 
principal sides (towards the court), one incidental result being 
that the pastry gets vastly more light than the kitchen. It has 
already been suggested that the winter parlour was placed on 
the servants' side in order to be near the kitchen. The bolting- 
house was the room where the meal was bolted, that is, sifted. 
The " pastry " was, as its name implies, the room in which were 
made pies, " cates," confectionery, and the "pretty little tiny 
kickshaws" which Justice Shallow ordered when he was fur- 
nishing his table for the entertainment of Sir John Falstaff. 
The housewives of the time were accomplished in the making 
of such dainties. The narrator of the Progress of James I. in 
1603 remarks upon the delicate fare provided by Sir Anthony 
Mildmay at Apethorpe, rendered "more delicate by the art 
that made it seem beauteous to the eye ; the Lady of the house 
being one of the most excellent Confectioners in England, though 
I confess many honourable women very expert." When Queen 
Elizabeth was entertained at Elvetham by the Earl of Hertford 
in 1591, a banquet was served in the evening "into the lower 
gallery in the garden," when a thousand dishes were served by 
two hundred gentlemen, with the light of a hundred torches, 
and among the more notable dishes were some tours de force in 
sugar-work, representing the royal arms, the arms of all the 
nobility, figures of men and women, castles and forts, all kinds 
of animals, all kinds of birds, reptiles and "all kind of worms," 
mermaids, whales, and " all sorts of fishes " : all these, we are 
told, were standing dishes of sugar-work. It is not suggested 
that the lady of the house herself produced these masterpieces ; 

Plate LXXXV. 

, i ^ .?..^:^ 


(pages 89, 90.) 

Plate I.XXXVI. 


(paces 147, 148,) 



Inner Room. 


Survaying Place. 





Principal Stairs. 




Dry Larder (Wet under) 



Winter Parlour. 





Hack Stairs. 




but ladies were certainly skilful in the making of cakes, and it 
was a recommendation in actual life, as well as in one of the 
plays of the time, that the heroine could " do well in the pastry." 

The elevation is treated, on the whole, in a quiet and dignified 
manner, but the handling of it from the parapets upwards shows 
a determination to obtain that picturesqueness of outline which 
was considered essential. The means to this end are curved 
gables, quaint pinnacles, and rather elaborate lanterns, of which 
there are two alternative designs provided, as there are also of 
the small gables or dormers on the parapet. The type of chimney 
shown is one of the more reasonable which were employed. 

The plan on Plate LXXXVI. shows a slight variation of the 
usual type, inasmuch as the wings, instead of being narrow and 
only one room thick, are two rooms thick. In other respects it 
follows the familiar lines. On one side is the hall with its dais 
and bay window ; then the grand staircase and a vestibule giving 
access to the parlour and a group of two lodgings, the remainder 
of the wing being occupied by a room which — if the ovens are 
anything but a repetition of those in the corresponding wing — 
must be the bakehouse. On the other side of the house are 
the buttery, a lodging, the winter parlour, the back stairs and 
vestibule, the kitchen, dry larder, and pastry ; the wet larder, 
according to a note, is under the dry. There is no arcade here. 
This plan is entitled " Sir \Vm. Haseridge," and the upright 
(as the elevation was called) has on it the initials D. H. and the 
date 1606 (Plate LXXXVI I.). This is important, as it shows 
that at that time the old relation of the hall to the rest of the house 
was still retained. This house, in spite of its title, has not been 
identified with any existing building. A family of the name of 
Haselrigge has lived at Noseley, in Leicestershire, since early in 
the fifteenth centur}', but the existing house has nothing in 
common with this plan. The elevation is treated in a simple 
manner, with very few foreign flourishes. 

In the next example (Figs. 217, 218, 219) we ha\e j^round plan, 
upper plan, and elevation : a valuable example, inasmuch as 
it is one of the few cases in which all three drawings are 
given ; the upper j^lan is interesting, as it shows the position 
of the two chief rooius, the galler\' and great chamber. The 
disposition oi the grotmd floor conforms to the usual t}pe, but 
is varied so as to enclose a small central court, somewhat after 
the fashion of Harlbcjrough (I'ig. 49) ; but here all the principal 



rooms are on one floor, whereas at Barlborough the kitchens 
are in the basement. The accommodation here comprises the 
hall, grand staircase, and parlour on the one side, and buttery, 
winter parlour, back stairs, and kitchen on the other. There 
is a vestibule to the kitchen, which probably would have been 

217. — An Un-named Ground (pages 217, 21? 

1. Hall. 

2. Principal Stairs. 

3. Parlour. 

4. Inner Room. 

5. Buttery. 

6. Winter Parlour. 

7. Back Stairs. 

8. Survaying Place (?). 

9. Kitchen. 

10. Inner Court. 

called the " survaying place " had it been named, similar rooms 

being so designated in Figs. 224, 226. The use of the survaying 

place is not anywhere explained, but most likely it was a serving 

room, where the dishes were overlooked before being taken to 

the hall or the winter parlour. There is a staircase from the 

kitchen which presumably led down to the larders, pantries, 

* In order to bring this plan within the limits of the page, the terrace walls on 
either side have been brought nearer to the house than they are on the original 



and other subsidiary rooms. The manner in which the middle 
bay window on the kitchen side serves to hght the vestibule 
and the back stairs (through a borrowed light) should be noticed 
as an instance of the subordination of the plan to the uniformity 
of the exterior. Here, for the first time, occurs an example of 
the use of sanitary conveniences : it will be seen that neither 
downstairs nor up are they placed in a manner that would be 

21H.— Ui'i'KK Plan ok I'k;. 217 (i-a(;ks 217, 21H). 

11. Great ChainbcT. 14,14. Hedrooiiis. 

12. Principal Stairs. 15. Back Stairs. 

13. Gallery. 16. Inner Court. 

tolerated at the present day. Nor indeed were the\' arranged 
at this {)criod with anything like the same attention to isolation 
and means of ventilation which was bestowed upon such places 
in mediaval times. The central court is shown with a room 
and staircase projecting into it, but this excrescc:nce was very 
wisclv crossed out, for the court was small enough without it, 
and couUl never have been either cheerful or contlucive to health. 
The upper plan shows the long galler}-, 80 feet long b\- 20 feet wide. 



and the great chamber, 45 feet long by 23 feet wide. To these two 
rooms nearly the whole space is sacrificed, there being in addi- 
tion only two fair-sized bedrooms and two smaller apartments, 
besides those which may have been contrived in the roof. Both 
the gallery, the great chamber, and the parlour are shown with 
an inner porch, such as occurs at Sizergh Castle (Fig. 148), and at 
Broughton Castle, in Oxfordshire (Plate LL), Bradfield, in Devon- 
shire, and a few other houses. The elevation (Fig. 219) resembles 
that on Plate LXXXV. It is treated in a simple and unostenta- 
tious way, but the most is made of such features as the bay 

219. — Elkvation of Figs. 217, 218. 

windows, chimney-stacks, and gables. The latter have the curly 
outline which is prevalent in the Thorpe collection, but which, as 
already said, does not appear in the same proportion among such 
of the actual buildings of the time as have survived. The front 
chimneys are of the same pattern as those on Plate LXXXV. 

The foregoing examples are a few out of a great number 
which conform to the traditional arrangement of the hall. The 
vast majority of the plans follow this type, but there are some, 
which we will now proceed to consider, in which the hall 
receives a different treatment, thus indicating that important 
change which resulted in its becoming a place of entrance 



instead of what it had been for four centuries — the centre of 
household Hfe. 

On some of these plans the room which is usually called the 
parlour is marked " d)' pier " or dining parlour. This shows 
that even the eating of meals, one of the functions for which 
the hall had always been used, was being transferred from that 
apartment to smaller and more comfortable rooms. The heads 
of the household, more particularly, sought the quiet of a smaller 

220. — An Us-NAMKi) Plan. 

1. Hall. 

2. I'arlour. 

3. Principal Stairs. 

4. Chapel. 

5. I.odKint,'. 

6. Uutlery. 

7. Winter Parlour. 

H. Hack Stairs. 

g. Siirvaying Place. 

10. Kitchen. 

11. Pastry. 

12. Courtyard. 

apartment, and with them they took their special friends, 
leaving persons of less importance to tlinewith the household in 
the hall. There is a letter from a Mr. Marlivale, of C'heviiigttJii, 
written t(j Sir Thomas Kytson, of Hengra\e, complaining of 
having been placed to dine in the hall with the steward instead 
of with the superior persons in the parlour. As Sir Thomas 
died in 1540, the practice of withdrawing from the great hall 
must have begun previous to that date. On one of Thorpe's 
plans he has marked a room as the " Servants' dining-room," 



r^ f^*A 


1^^ r-s 

U L 

"s . r 




which indicates 
a further deser- 
tion of the hall, 
and f r o m the 
other end. The 
purposes for 
which the hall 
had been used 
being thus pro- 
vided for else- 
where, it became 
no longer neces- 
sary to plan it 
on the old lines. 
The first change 
that took place 
was at the end 
where the screens 
were. The 
screens, indeed, 
disappeared, and 
in order to go 
from the front 
door to the kit- 
chen department, 
the hall itself had 
to be traversed. 
The following ex- 
a ni pies s h o w 
various instances 
^ of this change, 
but in the absence 
of particulars as 
to the name and 
date of most of 
the plans, it has 
been impossible 
to arrange them 
chronologicalK' : what sequence there is, is a sequence of stages 
in the development of the new idea of using the hall as an 

221. — Ground and Upper Plans, un-namei> (page 85). 

1. Hall. 

2. Parlour. 

3. Principal Stairs. 
4,4. LodKing. 

5. Kitchen. 

6. Buttery. 

7. Back Stairs. 

H, 8. Open Arcade. 
9. Great Chamber. 
10. Gallery. 

II. Stairs. 
Other Rooms on Upper Floor are Lodgings. 



The example in Fig. 220 has no name nor an}' writing upon 
it beyond the numbers of the stairs. The curious point about 
it is that the screen is in the side of the hall instead of at the end ; 
otherwise it preserves most of the old arrangements. Although 
the rooms are not named, they are easy to identify. On the 
famil}' side are the hall, with its dais, the parlour, staircase, 
chapel and " lodgings." On the servants' side are the buttery, 
winter parlour, back stairs, kitchen and pastry. Owing to the 
altered arrangement of the screens there is no thoroughfare 
leading straight 
from the front 
door to the court 

In the next ex- 
ample (Figs. 221, 
222) we have a 
further departure 
from the old type. 
Screens of a kind 
there are, but the 
front door leads 
only to the hall 
(through a vesti- 
bule), and the hall 
has to be traversed 
to gain the kit- 
chen. The buttery 
is in an entirely 
novel position, and 
the tendency 
clearl)' is to preserve the front door for the family, and to rele- 
gate the servants to their own entrance. A curious point is that 
the only wa}- from the kitchen to the butter}-, to the upper floor, 
or to the outside, is through the hall. In spite of these changes 
the dais still remains, as though the old custom of dining in 
the hall survived, notwithstanding the constant traffic which 
the service of the kitchen must have entailed. The upper plan 
shows the long gallery — apparently 62 feet long b}- only 10 feet 
wide — and the great chamber, 40 feet by 21 feet, which is over 
the hall. The draughtsman has aj^parently been led b}- the 
symmetry of his arrangements into placing the galler}- on the 

222. — Ki.KVATioN OK Plans in Imo. 221 (pack 85). 



wron^ facade in his upper plan. According to a note on the 
ground plan it should be at the back, and the elevation con- 
firms this disposition. Owin^ to the situation of the hall it 

223. — Un-samki) Plan and Ei.kvation (page 34). 

1. Hall. 

2. Parlour. 

3. Withdrawing Koon' 

4. Closet. 
5,5. Lodsing. 

6. Principal Stairs. 

7. Buttery. 

8. Back Stairs, 
g. Kitchen. 

lu. Larder. 

11. Bolting-house. 

12. Pastry. 

can no longer obtain light kom the sides, nor can there be any 
bay window to the dais : the only light it receives is from a large 
window at one end, which must be greatly darkened by the 
arcade in front of it, carrying the gallery. The great chamber 
is subject in a less degree to similar disadvantages, receiving 



light only from one end. The treatment of the exterior is some- 
what after the fashion of Wollaton, but of a plainer kind ; there 
is a central block 
surrounded b y 
rooms roofed at a 
lower level, and at 
each corner is a 
pavilion. It is quite 
possible that this is 
merely an exercise 
in design, and that 
it was never car- 
ried out, nor 
even thoroughly 

In the next ex- 
ample (Fig. 223) the 
idea of the entrance 
hall is further de- 
veloped. The front 
door opens into a 
passage off which 
the hall is ap- 
proached, but with- 
out a di\iding wall. 
There is no dais, 
and the parlour is 
entered from the 

of the hall. The 
latter apartment is 
still central, and 
divides the family 
rooms from those of 
the servants. There 
are fresh designa- 
tions bestowed 
upon some of them : the parlour and the lodgings we know, but 
in addition to these there is a "closset" and a "wth," or with- 
drawing room. The buttery is as near to its old position as the 

lassage instead of f 
rom the upper end 8 

I-'OK Ml(. WlI.L^' I'oWKI.I. 

(I'AGKS 265, 266). 

1. Hall. 

2. Diiiin^ Parlour. 

3. Principal Stairs. 

4. 1.<»\ku\k- 

5. Iiiiiir I,o<l^iii>;. 
f). Wiiilcr Parlour. 

7. IJiittcry. 

8. Siirvayiiig Place. 

9. Back Stairs. 

10. KitcluMi. 

11. Lardi'r. 

12. C<jurt. 



new arrangement allows, and beyond it is the familiar kitchen, 
with the larder, the pastry, and the bolting-house leading out of 
the latter. The elevation is again perfectly simple, and calls for 
no remark beyond pointing out the alternative methods shown 
of roofing the two central turrets. The sketch plan and elevation 
should be noticed, jotted down at the side of the main subject, 
and embod3'ing a smaller version of a somewhat similar idea. 
The plan and elevation entitled " for Mr. Will- Powell " 

225.— Mr. Johnson Y'i Druggyst (pagk 31). 

1. Hall. 5. Back Stairs. 

2. Parlour. 6. Kitchen. 

3. Principal Stairs. 7. Courtyard. 

4. Buttery. 8. Open Arcade. 

(Fig. 224) have not been identified with any existing building. 
The elevation is treated more after the English manner, par- 
ticularly in regard to the gables, than any of the preceding. 
In the plan the hall is frankly made an entrance hall, without 
any attempt at making it a living-room. It still occupies a 
central position, but there are no screens, no dais, and no bay 
window. The rooms are all named : the family side includes 
the dining parlour — now so named for the first time — a 
" lodging," and an " inner lodging." The opposite wing con- 
tains the winter parlour, the buttery, now attached to the 



servants' entrance, the " survay," or serving place, the kitchen, 
and larder. The house would seem to be built of wood and 
plaster, since all the walls are drawn some 6 inches thick, the 
fireplaces only being of the ordinary thickness. 

The plan for " Mr. Johnson y^ Druggyst " (Fig. 225) shows 
a further variation of the hall, which here has a screen and 
passage at each end. The dais idea has entirely disappeared, 
and the bay windows are placed for effect only : the central 
position is still retained, as also are the two wings, divided 
into the usual rooms. There are two front doors, one to each 
passage at the ends of the hall. The buttery occupies the old 

226.— An Un-namki) Plan (hack 72). 
Hall. 5. Survayiiig Place. 

Dinins Parlour 6. Kitchen 

Buttery. 7. Scullery. 

Graiui Staircase. K. I.arder. 

9. Hack Stairs. 

relation to one of these passages, while the other takes up the 
space which would formerly have been devoted to the dais. 
The relation to each other of the several rooms in the two 
wings follows the old lines ; it is in the hall that the essential 
change appears. A note on the plan says that the gallery, 
80 feet long and 15 feet wide, occupies the whole length of the 
front fagade, in the centre of which is a turret ; there is also a 
turret in the middle of each side, over the two staircases. The 
small sketch at the side of the finished plan should be noticed, 
as it is another instance of how the draughtsman jotted down 
a rough variation of the same general disposition of rooms. 
There is also a sketch for a mullion. 



In Fif^. 226 is a yet further variation of the treatment of the 
hall. It is no longer in the centre of the building, but becomes 
an ordinary thoroughfare room in one corner. The front 
entrance leads into a corridor, and immediately opposite to it 
is the great staircase. This is an entirely novel treatment, and 
indicates a complete revolution in the planning of houses. The 
hall is no longer the central feature, but gives place to the 
staircase. For the rest, the old apartments remain ; there is 

the buttery lying 
<>=t< ^ ^U(>g r~| between the stair- 

case and the hall, 
ly mixed up with 
the family rooms, 
equally inconve- 
niently cut off 
from the kit- 
chens. The 
dining parlour 
lies beyond the 
hall and far 
away from the 
kitchen, and 
the kitchen is 
through the 
place," and at- 
tached to it is a 
new room, the 
"scullery." So 
far as the main lines go, the house is simple and dignified, 
but the plan is neither so striking nor so convenient as those 
of the old type. 

The last plan of the series is that of a house for " Sir Jo. 
Danvers, Chelsey " (Figs. 227, 228), and there are two points to 
be specially noticed in it — one is that the kitchen and its offices 
are all underground, the other is that the hall is of the type 
usual in many Italian houses ; it extends right through the 
house from front to back, and has smaller rooms opening from 
it on each side. In Italy, the hall and the room over it occupy 

^ c^u^T 

227-— "Sir Jo. Danvers, Chelsey." Ground Plan (pages 21, 22). 

1. Waste Hall. 3. Parlour. 

2. Hall. 4. Chapel. 

5. Kitchen below. 



the whole of this space, and the staircase is among the rooms 
at the side, but at Sir John Danvers' house the staircase is 
in the hall itself, thus dividing it into two portions, the outer 
one of which is named "waste hall," and curtailing the effective 
space of the chamber over it. The device of placing the 
kitchen and offices in a basement was not often adopted in 
English houses; 
space was generally 
plentiful, and the 
native taste was 
rather in favour of 
the long and low 
treatment. But 
occasionally, where 
space was limited, 
or where some 
special notion con- 
trolled the design, 
as at Lyveden New 
Building, or where 
the Italian manner 
was closely fol- 
lowed, the basement 
was utilized for the 
purpose of the kit- 
chens. The sketch- 
elevation of Sir 
John Danvers' 
house points to- 
wards a more com- 
plete acceptance of 
classic treatment ; 
it is widely different 
from the extensive 
fa9ades and returned wings which are associated with the 
idea of an I^llizabethan or Jac(;bean house. Sir John built a 
house (but whether to this })articular plan, or not, is not 
certain) at Chelsea, on the site of one which had been the 
residence of Sir Thomas More ; and he seems to have done so 
in the early years of the seventeenth century. It is more 
than likely that he was attracted by the Italian model, since we 
K.A. K 

-Sir Jo. Danvkks, Chklsky. Uitkr Plan and 

Hl.KVATION (I'ACKS 21, 2j) 



learn from Aubrey* 
that " 'twas Sir John 
Dan vers of Chelsey 
who first taught us 
the way of Italian 
gardens. He had well 
travelled L^rance and 
Italy, and made good 
observations. . . , He 
had a very fine fancy, 
which lay chiefly for 
gardens and architec- 
ture." There is an- 
other rough sketch of 
an elevation on page 
178, accompanied by 
a plan, where the 
Italian treatment is 
still more marked. 
The centre of the 
fagade consists of two 
rows of columns, 
superimposed, and 
forming an open 
loggia on each floor; 
they carry a pedi- 
ment of flat pitch. 
This sketch is of con- 
siderable interest, 
since it connects 
Thorpe, who is the 
representative of 
Elizabethan and 
Jacobean design, with 
the far more Italian- 
ized style of his suc- 

Two other eleva- 
tions are illustrated, 
in addition to those which have accompanied some of the 

* John Aubrey's Xntiiial History of Wiltsliliw 

229. — An Un-namei) Hi.kvation. " mknt iok onk ok thk 
svdes of a house about a cort and may uk madk 
a front for a housf; " (paok ii5). 



foregoing plans, in order to sh 
pervades most of the sketches 
in Thorpe's book. They are 
both isolated examples, not 
attached to any plan, and not 
named. Indeed, the first of 
them (Fig. 229) was probably 
merely a sketch, as it bears the 
note, " ment for one of the 
sydes of a house about a cort 
and may be made a front for a 
house." It is quite English in 
character, and is singularly free 
from the curly gables and 
fantastic pinnacles which 
appear on most of Thorpe's 
elevations, and were derived 
from Dutch sources. The sec- 
tions through the wings should 
be noticed, as this is the only 
instance in the whole collection 
in which anything like a com- 
plete section is given. The 
section on the right hand is 
evidently taken through the 
hall, and shows its open- 
timbered roof of hammer-beam 

The second example (Fig. 
230) is nearly as simple in its 
treatment, but the gables break 
out into rather extravagant 
curls. The general treatment, 
with the large gables, the 
dormers, and the projecting 
chimney-stacks, is not unlike 
that of the west front of Kirby 
(Figs. 77, 107), but this eleva- 
tion does not tally with the plan 
of Kirby, which is not subject t(j 
This drawing bears the note. 

ow the kind of feeling: which 

230. — An Un-NAMKI) lU.KVArioN, "THK <iAKI)I-N 
ABOVK. J. T. ' (I'AllK 108). 

the same accurate sjtnmetry. 
" The garden svde, lodgings 



below and j^allery above. J. T.," and as it is initialed by Thorpe, 
it helps to identify as his many of the other elevations. 

One other plan is given (Fig. 231) as an example of Thorpe's 
ingenuity in planning. It consists of three rooms arranged 
within a circular balustrade and surrounded by a circular 

231. — An Un-named Plan (pagks 145, 146). 

1. Entrance. 

2. Hall (Kitchen below). 

3. Parlour. 

4. Lodging Chamber. 

5. Inner Chamber 

II. Terrace. 

6. Buttery. 

7. Woodyard. 

8. Closet, 
g. Stairs. 

10. Open Space. 

terrace. The angles formed where the three rooms join are 
occupied by three towers, one of which contains the porch, the 
other two the staircases. On the ground floor one of the rooms 
is the hall, one the parlour, one a bedchamber. The kitchen 
was to be under the hall. It should be observed how the large 
fireplaces are arranged so as to occupy some of the triangular 
space enclosed by the three rooms ; and how the odd corners 


left are devoted to the buttery, a closet, and a wood store. The 
bay window is different in each room, and is so planned as just 
to extend outwards as far as the surrounding balustrade. Having 
thus examined the main features of the design, observe how a 
number of alternative sketches have been made for filling in 
with cupboards the angles made by the circular walls of the 
turrets and the walls of the rooms : observe also that on one of 
the circular staircases an equilateral triangle has been drawn, 
evidently as an alternative way of treating the turrets, and 
observe further how in the parlour and bedchamber a sugges- 
tion is made to have a semicircular recess at one end, such as 
was not infrequent late in the seventeenth century, but which 
never occurs in an Elizabethan plan. All these points are 
interesting, because they show how the draughtsman elaborated 
his design ; and when he had finished this, he sketched a varia- 
tion of the same idea at the side, in the upper part of the sheet. 
He was also undecided about the position of his steps on to the 
terrace, for he drew them first in three sets, opposite to the three 
bay windows ; afterwards he sketched another set in pencil 
(shown by dotted lines on the drawing) in a more convenient 
situation just opposite the porch, and wrote on the old set 
** Stayres heare," and on the new " or heare." On his main 
staircases, too, after drawing the steps, he has crossed out three 
or four and written " half-pace," which means " half-landing." 
It will not be uninteresting to add to these illustrations of 
Thorpe's plans a list of the names of apartments, &c., to be 
found in his book appended to one or other of the drawings. 

Hall. Lodging, 

Parlour. A nobleman's lodging, coin- 

Dining parlour. prising 

Dining chamber abo\e hall. His ante-camera. 

The dining chaiubcr. Bedchamber. 

Winter parlour. Wood, coal, and privy. 

An ordinary winter parlour. Servants' lodging. 

The great parlour with the Officers' lodgings. 

great chamber over it. A bed chamber. 

Great chamber. An inner chamber. 

Gallery. Chaplin. 

The long gallery. His study. 

Withdrawing chamber. Study. 




Outward chapel. 

Library above. 


Butler's lodging. 


Pantler's lodging. 

Breakfast room. 


The great kitchen. 

A privy kitchen. 

Dry larder. 

Wet larder. 


Work room for the pastlers. 


Privy bakehouse. 

Meal house. 

Bolting house. 

Survaying place. 





Milk house. 

Brew house. 

The boiling house. 

Porter's lodging. 

Hynds' hall. 

Lesser hall for h}'nds. 

Servants' dining-room. 

Waiters' chamber. 

Waiters' bedchamber. 

Steward's lodging. 

His clerk. 


Wood, coal, and stool. 


Wine cellar. 

A wine cellar and for beer. 

Privy wine cellar. 

The Queen's wine cellar. 

My lord's wine cellar. 

A cellar for beer. 


An entry through all. 




A well light. 

A little court for light, &c. 

Common vault. 


A tennis court. 

A large terrace. 


A back walk. 




Kitchen garden. 

Washy ard. 





In the foregoing pages examples have been given of the 
architectural work of the sixteenth century— examples taken 
from all parts of England, and illustrating all kinds of features. 
From these it will have been gathered that the same general 
character pervaded the whole country at any one time, but 
that there was a great variety of treatment. This variety 
arose not merely from a difference in arrangement of uni- 
versally accepted features, or from different methods of hand- 
ling the same kind of ornament, but from actual differences 
between the features themselves and between the kinds of 
ornament, and it points to the employment of men who varied 
to a considerable degree in the amount of their training as well 
as in its direction. 

It will therefore not be without interest to glance briefly at 
what is known of the more prominent men who were employed 
in producing the architecture that has been under considera- 
tion, and at the methods which prevailed of supplying designs. 

Unfortunatcl}-, little detailed information has yet been 
obtained, or is obtainable, concerning these men, and what 
we do know about them is neither so full nor so clear as to have 
emerged entire!}' from the perplexing mists of controversy and 
to have attained the serene heights of incontrovertible fact. 
We know, for instance, that Henry VIII. emplo}ed many skilled 
foreign workmen, especially Italians. But very little work exists 
at this day which can be pointed out as theirs. We also know 
that early in the second half of the sixteenth century many 
Dutch artizans found refuge in England from the rigorous 
measures of Alva, that licences were given to various towns to 
receive them, and that a number of other towns petitioned to 
have strangers allotted to them : most of these towns were 
situated in the counties bordering on the sea in the East and 


South. But masons, joiners, and artificers in the other trades 
connected with building, do not seem to have been a large 
proportion of those immigrating. 

The most interesting piece of foreign work, inasmuch as it 
was the first done by Itahans in England, can, luckily, be 
identified in all important particulars, because the contract 
for it still exists. It was Henry VII. 's tomb, designed, and 
largely executed, by Torrigiano.* But beyond this tomb, 
and probabl}' that of Margaret, the mother of Henry VII, , 
and possibly that of Dr. Young in the Rolls Chapel, no 
English work of Torrigiano's is known. After him came 
Benedetto da Rovezzano, who partly executed an even more 
splendid tomb for Cardinal Wolsey, which was to have been 
placed in the specially erected chapel in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, but which Henry VIII. took to himself on the 
Cardinal's fall. Wolsey petitioned the King for his own figure 
— which was to have lain upon the tomb, and could hardly be 
expected to answer the same purpose for its new owner — and 
for such other parts as it might please the King to give him. But 
Henry retained the materials and proceeded to adapt them for 
his own monument, whereon he and his queen, Jane Seymour, 
were to have reposed. His queen, however, was soon replaced, 
and the tomb was still unfinished at his death, and was never 
carried to completion. Its metal parts were finally melted 
down by the Parliament Commissioners a hundred years later, 
but the marble sarcophagus lingered on, and was eventually 
removed to St. Paul's Cathedral in London, and utilized in 
the monument of Lord Nelson. Another Italian who was 
employed by Wolsey, and subsequently by Henry VIII., was 
Giovanni da Majano, whose name appears in accounts of the 
time as being paid for certain work ; but the work itself has 
disappeared, except the terra-cotta roundels, containing busts 
of Roman emperors, built into the walls of Hampton Court. 
Toto del Nunziata was another skilful Italian whose name 
appears in accounts, and he is said by Vasari to have built 
Henry VIII.'s principal palace. This is generally considered 
to have been Nonesuch, in Surrey, of which there is nothing 
leit. but which, as already stated, must have presented examples 
of most admirable work in the way of sculpture and painting.! 

* See page i2. 
t See page 33. 


Nicholas of Alodena, described as a carver, also worked for 
Henry, and remained in England for some years after his 
death, but the work attributed to him is only conjectural. 
Indeed, the share taken by the Italians of Henry VIII. 's time 
in the design of English work, is still a matter of controversy 
to be waged by the learned, and has not yet descended to the 
more certain level of the text-book. What we do know is, 
that Torrigiano executed Henry VI I. 's tomb under a con- 
tract, and that a few other Italians of eminence resided for 
longer or shorter periods in England, together with a 
considerable number of their compatriots of less distinction. 
These men must have exercised considerable influence upon 
their English companions, and although their own style of 
ornament did not become universal, they must have prepared 
the way for the general adoption of the other versions of 
Italian detail which marked the second half of the sixteenth 

The same remarks apply to Holbein, although the designs 
which he executed for work in England are much more 
numerous than those of any of his contemporaries, and have 
been identified beyond doubt as his. That is to say, in addition 
to his pictures, a large number of his drawings remain, princi- 
pally for articles of goldsmith's work ; but the objects them- 
selves have mostly disappeared. One of the largest of his 
drawings, however, is that of a wood chimney-piece, which, 
from the initials upon it, was intended for Henry \TII. Some 
architectural work has been attributed to Holbein, but only on 
conjecture. Amongst it may be mentioned two gateways at 
Whitehall, now removed ; part of a front at Wilton, in Wilt- 
shire, as well as a little garden-h(juse there ; and the splendid 
screen at King's College Chapel, Cambridge. Hut there is no 
actual evidence to connect him with these works, and we 
should be mistaken in regarding him in an\- way as an architect 
in the sense in which we understand the term. 

The architect, indeed, as a distinct indixidiial, does not 
seem to have arisen in those early days : the architect, that is, 
who not only designed the f)lan and elevations of the building, 
but also the details of its various parts and of its ornament. 
Inigo Jones may be taken as the first Englishman who com- 
bined the functions of planner and designer of details ; previous 
to his time the work entailed in the designing of a house was 


much subdivided, the plan and elevations being provided b}' 
the surveyor, and each trade producing its own special details 
as the work went on. Shakespeare only uses the word 
"architect" once, and then not in connection with building 
operations. He gives us, however, a sketch of how to set 
about building, in the Second Part of King Henry IV. 
"When we mean to build," says Lord Bardolph, "we first 
survey the plot, then draw the model; and when we see the 
figure of the house, then must we rate the cost of the erection. . . . 
Much more in this great work , . . should we survey the plot of 
situation, and the model ; consent upon a sure foundation ; 
question surveyors." It was the surveyors, such as John 
Thorpe, who drew the model, which comprised the plans 
and an elevation, or a perspective view indicating the treat- 
ment of more than one front. These drawings were then 
carried out by the workmen on the spot, who provided their 
own details. In some of the simpler buildings no surveyor 
was employed, but rough plans were prepared by the builder 
himself, not so much to work from, as to indicate, for the 
purpose of a contract, the general extent and appearance 
of the building. In others, again, no plans were used, but 
the work was set out on the spot, and built to the requisite 
height under the supervision of the master mason. It is 
almost certain that in some cases only a plan was provided, 
without elevation ; in the Thorpe collection a large proportion 
of the plans have no elevation to correspond ; and Henry VIL, 
in his will, orders his tomb to be placed in the midst of his 
new chapel at Westminster according to " the plat [i.e., plan] 
made for the same chapel and signed with our hand." At 
St. John's College, Cambridge, the contractors who built the 
second court were bound to erect it according to certain 
" platts and uprights " {i.e., elevations), thus showing that 
the " plat " did not include elevations as well as plan. 

Such contracts as have been preserved relating to work 
of the sixteenth century, go to show either that the various 
tradesmen provided their own designs, or that they were to 
take some already executed work as a pattern. There were 
separate contracts for the separate trades, but most of them 
were with masons, joiners, and glaziers. The masons who 
built the second court at St. John's were to make the windows 
after the fashion of those in the court already built. The 


joiner who fitted up the chapel was to make his work like 
that in Jesus College and Pembroke Hall, " or better in every 
point." The joiner who executed the stalls and the fretwork 
of the ceiling in the chapel at Trinity College, was to make 
the stalls like those at King's College, while the frets, battens, 
and pendants of the ceiling were to be made " according to 
the pattern showed to the master and other of the said College 
for the said frets, battens, and pendants." The glazier who 
provided the windows of the hall and chapel at St. John's, 
was to make them of " good and able Normandy glass of 
colours and pictures as be in the glass windows within the 
College called Christ's College." 

These contracts are useful because they state expressly the 
sources whence the design was to be taken ; but where the 
work was not done by contract, such accounts as have been 
preserved point in the same direction. After the masons had 
finished the second court at St. John's, including the plastering 
of the walls and ceilings, there appears an entry in the accounts 
for the payment of one Cobb for " frettishing " the gallery and 
the great chamber — that is, for working the ornamental plaster 
ceiling; and another for the payment of the joiner for the 
wainscotting of the gallery and for the two chimney-pieces 
there. No mention is made of any particular design, and 
the presumption is that the workmen supplied their own. 
This presumption is stronger in the case of the panelling of 
the hall at Queen's College, where ever}' item of cost appears, 
as well as the names of the various workmen emplo}ed. 

It is interesting to see how the names of the workmen 
gradually changed. The first entry is on the last day of 
September, 1531, when Matthew Hlunt and Robert Cave were 
paid for " w(jrking on the panelling of the College hall." In 
November they are joined by one Dyrik Harrison, who does 
the same kind of work ; in December, one Lambert comes, 
and Matthew l^lunt disappears ; a few days afterwards a certain 
Arnold joins them, and subsequently a Peter. In January, 
Giles Tainbeler, carver, is paid for nine capitals, and in l'"ebruary 
for thirteen more, and he then disajipears. But his place 
seems to have been taken by D}rik Harrison, who thence- 
forward is paid, not for ordinary joiner's work, but for carving 
capitals, shields, arms, and lines of " antique crest " and 
"antique border," up to the middle of July, when he receives 


his final payment " by order of the President." In the mean- 
time Robert Cave's name has ceased to be entered, but Arnold, 
Lambert, and Peter still continue. After Harrison's departure 
Lambert seems to have done the special work, since in August 
he gets paid for certain columns and for the " extreme parts of 
the cresting." His is the last name of the joiners which 
appears, and in September the work was finished. It would 
almost seem as though Giles Fambeler, whose name looks 
anything but English, had been employed for some two 
months, just to show how the new carving should be done, and 
that from him Dyrik Harrison, whose Christian name suggests 
a Dutch connection, picked up a knowledge of the fashionable 
ornament sufficient to enable him to take Giles's place ; and 
that Lambert in his turn succeeded Harrison. Even if this 
supposition is larger than the facts warrant, it must have been 
in some such manner as this that the new forms were dis- 
seminated through the country. It is worthy of note that the 
joiner employed at Hengrave, in 1538, six years after this 
work at Queen's, was named Dyrik, and it is pleasant to 
imagine (Hengrave being some five-and-twenty miles from 
Cambridge) that it might have been the same Dyrik Harrison 
who had picked up his first knowledge from Giles Fambeler. 

In such matters as tombs it is beyond question that the 
workmen supplied the designs. In the year 1525 there is an 
entry in the accounts of St. John's of a small sum " given to the 
master mason of Ely for drawing a draught for my lord's tomb," 
meaning Bishop Fisher's. In 1533 " Mr. Lee the free mason " 
was paid for making and setting up the tomb. Upon the Bishop's 
execution, the monument was taken to pieces and thrown aside, 
but towards the end of last century the remains were discovered 
during the process of clearing away the rubbish in an '"old dis- 
used chapel." A rough drawing was made of them, from which 
it is evident that the design was quite in the Italian style. It 
shows an altar tomb with a pilaster at each corner, ornamented 
with arabesques similar to those on Henry VII. 's tomb. The 
side is occupied by a large panel supported by two amorini, 
and surrounded with foliage and scrollwork ; the end has a shield 
within a garland. The whole work is described by an eye- 
witness as being elegant, neat, and ornamented in great taste, 
from which we may gather that both in design and execution 
it was a worthy specimen of the style prevalent in Henry VIII. 's 


time. We have already seen that it was designed by the 
master mason at Ely, and executed by Mr. Lee, the free mason. 
If these two were not one and the same man, at any rate there 
is no reason to suppose that they were other than Englishmen.* 

Some fifty years after Bishop Fisher's tomb was erected, 
there was drawn up a contract (in 1581) between the executor 
of Thomas Fermor, of Somerton, in Oxfordshire, and Richard 
and Gabriel Roiley, of Burton-upon-Trent, " tumbe makers."' 
The latter agree " artificially, cunningly, decentl}', and sub- 
stantially to devise, work, set up, and perfectly and fully finish " 
a very fair tomb of very good and durable alabaster stone and 
of certain specified dimensions. It is to have on it " a very fair 
decent and well-proportioned picture or portraiture of a gentle- 
man representing the said Thomas Fermor," with certain 
specified accessories; and also "a decent and perfect picture 
or portraiture of a fair gentlewoman with a French hood, edge 
and habiliments, with all other apparel, furniture, jewels, orna- 
ments and things in all respects usual, decent and seemly for a 
gentlewoman." There are also to be the "decent and usual 
pictures" of a son and two daughters with escutcheons in their 
hands — somewhat after the fashion, no doubt, of those on the 
Bradbourne tomb in Fig. 9. The son is to be in armour and 
as living; one of the daughters is to be "pictured in decent 
order and as living," the other " as dying in the cradle or 
swathes." There are to be four shields, one containing "the 
very true arms " of Thomas Fermor ; two others his arms and 
those of his two wives, severally ; and the fourth the arms of 
his second wife. They are all to be placed as most may serve 
for the " shew and setting forth of the said tomb." Once 
again, towards the end, it is stated that all the "devising, 
colouring, gilding, garnishing, workmanship, carriage, con- 
veying, setting up, and full finishing of the said tomb," is to be 
done by the Roileys ; but the executor will provide " wains, 
carts and cattle" to draw the parts of the tomb to Somerton. 
The price for the tomb is to be ^40. 

It is here expressly stated that the workmen are to do the 
"devising" as well as the making of the tomb. The features 
which it is to comprise are stated, but the designing and 
arranging of them are left to the workmen. It is interesting to 

* For particulars of these contracts, &c., at Camljridge, see Willis and Clark's 

Architectural History of the University of Cambridge, Vol. II. 


notice that the male figure is to be the portraiture of a gentle- 
man representing Thomas Fermor, but it does not seem to be 
implied that the likeness was to be very accurate. In the case 
of the lady, evidently no resemblance was expected, and we are 
left to conjecture whether it was the first or the second wife who 
was the more nearly represented. All those who are familiar 
with Elizabethan tombs will recognize the son and daughter 
holding escutcheons, and the child in "swathes," as well as the 
four shields bearing the arms of Thomas Fermor and his two 
wives. If additional proof were wanted that the design was 
left in the hands of the workman, it is to be found in the stipu- 
lation that everything is to be placed so as best to " set forth " 
the tomb. This important part of the business is not to be 
arranged by the executor or any one acting on his behalf, but 
by the contracting tomb-makers. 

Tombs are comparatively small structures, and might possibly 
have been subjects of special custom ; but the same custom 
prevailed in the building of large houses like Burghley House 
and Cobham Hall. When the latter building was in a suitable 
condition, the plasterer was sent for in order that he might 
submit patterns and models of the ceilings for Lord Cobham 
to select from. During a considerable part of the time occupied 
in building the earlier portions of Burghley, a number of letters 
passed between the foreman and Lord Burghley, in which the 
foreman sought instructions from his lordship about many 
minute particulars, which would certainly have been settled by 
the architect had there been one. Among Lord Burghley's 
papers is one showing the plan and elevation of a window, 
endorsed in Burghley's own hand " Henryck's platt of my bay 
window " ; suggesting that, as occasion arose, his lordship 
applied to some skilful craftsman for drawings. It is certain 
that he made a point of studying books on architecture, for in 
August, 1568, he wrote to Sir Henry Norris, ambassador in 
France, asking him to provide for him " a book concerning 
architecture, entitled according to a paper here included, which 
I saw at Sir Thomas Smith's ; or if you think there is any 
better of a late making of that argument." The enclosure 
containing the title of the book is not in existence, so we do 
not know what it was ; but from this reference we gather that 
Sir Thomas Smith (who was a Secretary of State, and had 
been ambassador to France) was interested in architecture as 


well as Lord Bur^hley, and that Sir Henry Norris was suffi- 
ciently acquainted with the subject to be able to recommend 
the latest work dealin^^ with it. Some years later Lord 
Burghley was again asking for a French book on architecture, 
but this time he gave the title, in phraseology indicating that 
he was something of a student of the subject. "The book I 
most desire," he says, " is made by the same author, and is 
entitled ' Novels institutions per bien baster et a petits frais, 
par Philibert de Lorme,' Paris, 1576." From these instances 
it would appear not improbable that had Lord Burghley 
lived in the days of Pope, he might have shared with Lord 
Burlington the reputation of being one of the foremost archi- 
tects of the age ; but as a matter of fact he did not pretend 
to that distinction : all that he did, apparently, was to direct 
the energies of others who had received special training in 
architectural matters. 

The Henryk who provided the platt of Lord Burghley's bay 
window was a Dutch mason in the employ of Sir Thomas Gres- 
ham — who built the first Royal Exchange, or Bourse, as it was 
called — and he passed backwards and forwards between London 
and Antwerp as occasion demanded. Many of the materials 
for Gresham's Bourse came from the Low Countries, and were 
shipped thence under the superintendence of Gresham's agent, 
Richard Clough. Clough's letters from Antwerp, where he was 
stationed, give in quaint phraseology a good deal of information 
as to the progress of the work which was being prepared over 
there both for Sir Thomas Gresham and the more exalted 
" Sir William Cecil, the Queen's Majesty's principal Secretary," 
afterwards Lord Burghley. In July, 1566, Clough congratulates 
himself on Gresham's liking Henryk so well, and (mi the work 
being s(; well forward, that when Henryk returns to Antwerp 
he can get on with the rest. By the beginning of August 
Henryk had arrived, and " your carpenters also, whom I do 
mean shortly to return." In the next few letters he is greatly 
troubled about "Master Secretary's" paving stones. On the 
29th S(!ptember, he says that he calls daily upon Henryk, who 
is looking daily for them, and he has sent a man to the place 
where they are in making in order to hasten their departure. 
Notwithstanding this, on the 20th October Master Secretary's 
paving stones were not come, " but Henryk saith he kncnveth 
well they will be here within a day (^r two," and then he will 


not fail to send them away out of hand, even if he has to "hire 
a small hoy of purpose." But delays in the delivery of goods 
vexed the souls of overlookers in as great a degree then as now, 
and still on the loth November " Master's stones are not come, 
which maketh Master Henryk almost out of his wit, for I never 
fail a day but I am once a day with him, so that they cannot 
be long, unless they be drowned by the way." The hopeful 
expectation was fulfilled, for a fortnight later Clough writes, 
"and as touching Master Secretary's stones, I do not doubt 
but that you have received them long since ; and that they 
have been so long — Henryk saith he could do no more and 
if his life had been upon the matter." So the paving stones 
were sent off at last, and at the same time Henryk sent a 
pattern how they should be laid ; it was unnecessary to send a 
man, for he thought "that him that paved Master Secretary's 
house can so well lay those stones as any that he should send 
from hence." 

The trying episode of " those stones" being closed, Clough 
returns to the subject of the Bourse, and promises to send off 
further materials ; on the 5th December he says he has shipped 
a certain amount " in Cornelius Janson's sprett," and trusts 
that before Easter everything will be despatched. Soon after 
this, it seems, he went away to get married, and his letters 
cease ; but in the following April (the 27th) an apprentice of 
Gresham's informs him of such matters as had passed in 
Antwerp since Clough's departure, among which was the 
discharge from the " Prince's men " of two of Gresham's 
retainers, whom he intended to send to London "in one of the 
ships laden with stone for the Bourse," of which there were 
three ready to depart " as to-morrow." As Easter Day fell on 
the 30th March in the year 1567, Clough's hope that everything 
would be despatched by then was not absolutely fulfilled. 

Henryk was now apparently sufficiently at liberty to be 
allowed to turn his attention from Gresham's work to Cecil's, 
and on the 21st August, 1567, the former writes to the latter, 
" As for Henryk, you shall find him so reasonable as you 
shall have good cause to be content, and by this post I have 
given order for the making of your gallery, which I trust shall 
both like you well in price and workmanship." Four months 
later, on the 26th December, it was a door for Cecil which was 
in question, and as " Henryk my workman " intended to go over 


sea after the Christmas holidays, and to stay till April, Gresham 
desired to know whether Cecil would have his " port (door) set 
up before his departure, or else at his return." In the following 
February, Gresham again writes to Cecil reminding him that 
" Henryk hath lost the pattern of the pillars for your gallery in 
the country, so he can proceed no further in the working thereof 
until he have another." He urges Cecil not to fail to send the 
pattern at once, as Henryk would be back in London by the 
last day of March at the farthest. This inability of Henryk's 
to proceed without the " pattern " shows that in this case, at 
any rate, he did not supply the design. But already four 
years earlier (in January, 1563) there had been some correspon- 
dence between Clough and Cecil about a gallery and a pattern 
which the latter had sent ; and if the two galleries were one and 
the same, it was probably the old pattern which Henryk had to 
work to, and there was no need for him to devise a new one. In 
the case in which Clough was concerned there was some dis- 
crepancy in the pattern or instructions sent by Cecil for the 
pillars and arches, which required correction ; he therefore sent 
back the pattern, so that Cecil might confer with his mason at 
home. As to a mason going over from Flanders to England, 
there was no need for it, since the work would be so wrought 
that it could not be set amiss, besides which a pattern in paper 
should be sent. The Dutch mason's advice was that the pillars 
should be made all of one stone, and the arches accordingly, 
" for they must be made, to be well made, either antique or 
modern, and this, with the whole pillar, is antique ; wherefore 
according as I shall hear from your honour, so I shall proceed 
therein." The difference intended to be conveyed between 
"antique" and "modern" is not very clear, inasmuch as 
" antique " was the term generally applied in describing work 
executed in the style which we call Renaissance. But this is a 
detail which does not affect the general conclusions to be drawn 
from the whole correspondence, which are, first, that there is 
no one concerned in these various transactions who acts in the 
capacity of the architect, but tliat when instructions are required 
by the workmen they are sought from the proprietor himself: 
second, that Dutch workmanship and design were procured 
by men of eminence in England : and third, that English work- 
men were thought to be quite as capable of dealing with the 
worked materials as any that could be sent from abroad. 
R.A. S 


The books on Architecture which were pubhshed during the 
sixteenth century point somewhat in the same direction, namely, 
that there was no all-controlHng architect, but that buildings 
were carried out by co-operation in design as well as execution. 
At the same time, they make it evident that the idea of the 
architect as the person who should have chief control had 
arisen: an idea which took more and more hold until it received 
its first striking embodiment, so far as England is concerned, 
in Inigo Jones. Hans Bluom's book on the Five Orders, 
published at Zurich in 1550, is declared on the title-page to 
be useful to painters, sculptors, workers in brass and wood, 
masons, statuaries, and all who require sure measure ; no men- 
tion being made of architects. The same omission occurs in 
the English translation published in 1608, which mentions on 
the title-page free-masons, carpenters, goldsmiths, painters, 
carvers, inlayers and Anticke-cutters, who must not be taken 
for anything but cutters of " antique " patterns. The address 
to the reader professes that the book is offered for the benefit of 
*' Masters, Builders, Carvers, Masons, Lymners, and all sorts of 
men that love beauty and ornament." The publisher of Vries's 
book of moimments of 1563 exhorts, on his title-page, all 
painters, statuaries, architects and masons to inspect, buy and 
use it ; and the same author's book on Perspective of 1604 is 
addressed to painters, sculptors, statuaries, smiths, architects, 
designers, masons, clerks, woodworkers, and all lovers of the 
arts. We have, therefore, the appellation of " architect " 
introduced, but it is ranked with the statuaries, masons, and 
smiths ; and indeed the term was probably used in its original 
signification of " master-workman." 

There was a book published in 1600, of which the title is 
interesting, although the contents do not enlighten us in regard 
to the subject under enquiry. It was called " The hospitall 
of incurable fooles : erected in English, as near the first 
Italian modell and platforme, as the unskillful hand of an 
ignorant architect could devise " ; but beyond the use of the 
word " architect," and the deductions to be drawn from its 
connection with the " Italian modell," there is no help to be 
obtained in this quarter. 

Some further light is thrown on the term by John Shute, 
who published his book The Chief Groundes of Architecture 
in 1563. Shute calls himself a " Paynter and Archytecte," 


and in the heading of one of his chapters he speaks of an 
"Architecte or Mayster of Buyldings." This is the signifi- 
cation of the term which became gradually accepted, but there 
is no evidence that in Shute's time (that is, in 1563) a master 
of the buildings was generally employed, or that being 
employed he was designated an architect, John Thorpe 
was called a " surveyor," Robert Smithson, who died in 
1614, fifty years after Shute, is designated in his epitaph as 
'' architector and surveyor unto the most worthy House of 

All the evidence points therefore to co-operation in design as 
well as execution, and while men like Thorpe provided plans 
and "uprights," each trade provided its own details. This 
view will account for much of what is otherwise very puzzling — 
the diversity in character between buildings supposed to have 
been the work of the same " architect." The difficulty largely 
disappears if we suppose the small scale drawings to have been 
supplied by the "surveyor," and then elaborated on the works 
by the foreman and the various craftsmen. But that there 
was a desire among wealthy patrons to establish an educated 
class of " architects " is proved by the Introduction of Shute's 
book, for he tells us there that he was sent to Italy by the 
Duke of Northumberland in the year 1550 for the express 
purpose of studying architecture, and that having there studied 
it and amassed a number of drawings and designs of sculpture, 
painting, and architecture, he thought good on his return 
to set forth some part of them for the profit of others, espe- 
cially touching architecture. How far Shute himself was able 
to put his knowledge to the test of practical experience is not 
known, for no buildings are identified as his, and he died in 
1563, the same year in which he published his book. He 
speaks of his patron having shown the results of his studies 
to Edward \T. after his return : Edward died in 1553, and 
there were ten years, therefore, during which Shute might have 
put in practice what he learned in Italy. 

The history (jf architectural design during the sixteenth 
century cannot, therefore, be written round the names of great 
men in England as it can in Italy, and in a less degree in 
France. Those who do most towards giving character to a 
building are those who determine its })lan and general out- 
lines; and the men who did this to our I'2nglish houses were 

s 2 


the surveyors. Of these John Thorpe is the only one about 
whom anything much is known ; but enough is known to 
place him in a high rank as a designer. There must have been 
many others, but their names have disappeared and their fame 
has evaporated. A list of all those who could be considered 
architects has been drawn up by Mr. Wyatt Papworth,* 
but the names of those prior to Inigo Jones include patrons, 
masons, and carpenters as well as surveyors, and the task still 
remains to assign to each his proper share in the production of 
the architecture of his day. This architecture was not the 
work of a single class of men, but resulted from the joint efforts 
of many minds directing many different tools. High and low, 
rich and poor, gentle and simple, cultured and uncultured, all 
combined to the same end, and the authors of the archi- 
tectural books of the period knew their business when they 
appealed on their title-pages to so many different artificers. 

* The Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture in Great Britain, 1883. 



PERIOD, &c. 

DOLLMAX (F. T). — An Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture 

in Great Britain. 2 vols. 4to. 1864. 
Hunt (T. F.). — Exemplars of Tudor Architecture. 8vo. 1836. 
L.v.MB (E. 13.). — Studies of Ancient Domestic Architecture. 410. 1846. 
PuciiN (A.). — Specimens of Gothic Architecture in England. 2 vols. 

4to. 1 82 1. 
PUdiN (A. and A. W.). — Examples of Gothic Architecture in England. 

3 vols. 4to. 1 83 1. 
Turner (T. H.) and Parkkr (J. H.). — Some Account of Domestic 

Architecture in England during the Middle Ages. 3 vols. 8vo. 

1859— 1877. 

ii. works on the architixture of thic 
elizabi:than and Jacobean period; also books 
OF refi:rence, &c. 

.\rchitkctural Association Sketch Book, Thk. 
Old Series. 12 vols. Folio. 1868— 1880. 
New Series. 12 vols. Folio. 1881 — 1892. 
Third Series. Folio. 1893 — and in progress. 
Bl.oMKlKl.i) (R. T). A History of Renaissance Architecture in 

Flngland. 2 vols. Imp. 8vo. 1897. 
Clayton (J.). — .Ancient Timber Edifices of England. Folio. 1846. 
(ioTCH (J. A.). — Architecture of the Renaissance in England. 2 vols. 

Folio. 1 89 1 1894. 
Hahkrshon (M.). Ancient Half-Timbered Edifices of England. 410 

Hakkwii.i, (F.).— An .Attempt to Determine the Exact Character 

of Elizabethan Architecture. 8vo. 1835. 
Ham. t'S. C.j. l5aronial Halls and Ancient Edifices of England. 

2 vols. 4to. 1850. 
Nash (J.;. — .Mansions of England in the Olden Time. 4 vols. Folio. 

1 839 -1 849. 


Nash (J.)- — Mansions of England in the Olden Time. 4 vols. 410. 

P.\P\vORTH (\V.). — The Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture 
in Great Britain : A Chronological List of Examples, 1450— 1700. 
8vo. 1883. 

Richardson (C. J.). — Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Eliza- 
beth and James I. Folio. 1840. 

Richardson' (C. J.). — Specimens of the Architecture of the Reigns of 
Queen Elizabeth and King James I. 4to. 1837. 

Richardson (C. J.). — Studies from Old English Mansions. 4 vols. 
Folio. 1841 — 1848. 

Shaw(H.). — Details of Elizabethan Architecture. 4to. 1834. 


Cole (Rev. R. E. G.). — History of the Manor and Township of 

Doddington. Svo. 1897. 
Cope (Sir W'. H.). — Bramshill ; its History and Architecture. 4to. 
Davie (W. Galsworthv) and E. Guv Dawker. — Old Cottages 

and Farm Houses in Kent and Sussex. 4to. 1900. 
Elvard (S. J.).— Some Old Wiltshire Homes. Folio. 1894. 
Gage (J.). — History and Antiquities of Hengrave. 4to. 1822. 
Gotch (J. A.). — The Buildings Erected in Northamptonshire by 

Sir Thomas Tresham. Folio. 1883. 
Harrison (F.). — Annalsof an Old Manor House. 410. 1893. 
Nevill (R.).— Old Cottage of Domestic Architecture in South- West 

Surrey. 4to. 1890. 

NiVEN (W.). — Monograph of Aston Hall, Warwickshire. 4to. 1881. 

Illustrations of Old Staffordshire Houses. 4to. 1882. 

Illustrations of Old Warwickshire Houses. 4to. 1878. 

Illustrations of Old Worcestershire Houses. 4to. (?) 

Palmer (C. J.}. — Illustrations of An Old House at Great Yarmouth. 

4to. 1838. 
ROUNDELL (Mrs. Charles) Cowdrav.— The History of a (ireat 

English House. 410. 1884. 
T.wlor (H.).— Old Halls in Lancashire and Cheshire. 4to. 1882. 
Willins (E. p.).— Some Old Halls and Manor Houses in Norfolk 

4to. 1890. 


ArcH/EOLOGI.\ : or Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Antiquity, pub- 
lished by the Society of Antiquaries. 

Archaeological Journal, \'o1. VIII. for Contract for Thos. 
Fermors Tomb in Somerton Church ; Vols. V. and XXXIX. for 
Nonesuch Palace. 



Arch.bological Journal, Vol. LI. 1894. "On the Work of 
Florentine Sculptors in England in the Early Part of the Sixteenth 
Century," &c., by Alfred Higgins, F.S.A. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, August, 1837, for Nonesuch Palace. 

Journal of the Society of Arts, April 24, 1891. "Decorative 
Plaster Work," by G. T. Robinson, F.S.A. 

Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society. 

Transactions of the R. I. B. A., May 18, June 8, 1868. " On the 
Foreign Artists employed in England during the Sixteenth Century, 
and their Influence on British Art," by M. Digby Wyatt. 


Androut Du Cerceau (Jacques).— Les plus excellents bastiments 

de France. Folio. 1576 — 1579. 
Androut Du Cerceau (Jacques). — De architectura opus. Folio 

Aubrey (J.). — Wiltshire Topographical Collections, 1659 — 1670. 4to. 

1862. (H.). — The Book of Five Columnes of Architecture, «&c. 

Translated by I. T. Folio. 1608. 
Bluom (Joannes, sdi/w as Hans Blooiitc). — Quinque Columnarum 

Exacta Descriptio. Folio. 1550. 
BOORDE (A.). — Compendyous Regyment, or a Dyetary of Helth. 

i2mo. 1542. 
Braun ((iE-ORGE^i. — Urbium pnccipuarum mundi theatrum quinlum. 

1582. (For Nonesuch Palace.) 
Britton (J.). — Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. 5 vols. 

4to. 1807 — 1826. 
BURGON (J. W.).--Lifc and Times of Sir Thomas Gresham. 1839. 
C.\HALA. — Sive scrinia sacra. Folio. 1691. 
Dallaway (Rev. James).— A Series of Discourses upon Architecture 

in England. 8vo. 1833. 
DiETTERl.EiN (Wendelj. Architectura und Austheilung der V. 

Seulen. Folio. 1593. 
I3oi,LMAN (F. T.). — The Priory of St. Mary Overie, Southuark. 410. 

Evelyn (J.).— Memoirs and Correspondence, 1641 1706. 
Gedde (W.).- -A Bookc of Sundry Draughtes. 8vo. 1612; reissued 

Harrls (Sir N.j. -Memoirs of the Life and Times of Sir Christopher 

Hatton. <Svo. 1H47. 
Hartshorne (Miss).— Memorials of Holdcnby. 1868. 
Hentzner (P.). Journey into England in 1598. ICditcd by Horace 

Walpolc. 1797- 
KlI' (W.) and Harrison (S.).- The Archs of Triumph, erected in 

honour of James I. Folio. 1604. 



Law (E.).— History of Hampton Court Palace. 3 vols, 8vo. 

1888— 1891. 
Lethahy (W. R.). — Leadwork, Old and Ornamental. 8vo. 1893. 
Nichols (J.). — Progresses. F"estivities, and Pageants of Queen Eliza- 
beth. 3 vols. 4to. 1823. 
Nichols (J.). — Progiesses, Processions, Festivities, and Pageants of 

King James I. 4 vols. 1828. 
L'Ormk (Philihert DE). — Nouvelles Inventions pour bien bastir. 

Folio. 1 561. 
Pepys (S.). — Diary, 1659 — 1669 ; Memoirs and Private Correspondence. 
Rye (W. B.). — England as seen by Foreigners in the Days of Elizabeth 

and James I. 4to. 1865. 
ScOTT (Sir George Gilbert). — Gleanings from Westminster 

Abbey. 8vo. 1863. 
Shute (Joh\). — The Chief Groundes of Architecture. Folio. 1563. 
State Papers. — Domestic Series. Elizabeth and James. 
TwYCROSS (Edward). — The Mansions of England and Wales. 

Folio. 1847 — 1850. 
Vries (Jan Vredeman de). — Book of Monuments. 4to. 1563. 
Vries (Jan Vredeman de). — Architectura, ou bastiment prins de 

Vitruve, &c. Folio. 1577. 
Vries (Jan \'rei)EMAN de). — Perspective. Oblong 4to. 1604. 
Westlake. — A History of Design in Painted Glass. 4 vols. 4to. 

1 88 1 — 1894. 
W^ILLIS (J.) and Clark (J. W.). — The Architectural History of the 

University of Cambridge. 4 vols. 8vo. 1886. 


Note. — The ordinary figures denote references to pages of text, those in 
black type denote references to illustrations in the text, and the 
Roman numerals are for plates. 

Abbott's Hospital, Guildford . . i66 

,, doorway.. .. 149 

,, key-plate .. 154 

latch . . . . 150 

Additions to existing houses . . 73 

Almshouses 210 

Althorpe, Hawking-tower 212, 199, 200 

Alva 253 

Ampthill, long gallery 195 

Andrew, Sir Thomas, tomb of 16, 8 
ANssi-LE-p-RANC, plan and elevation 

copied by John Thorpe 227, 213, 

Apartments on John Thorpe's 

plans, list of 251 

Ai'ETHORPE Hall 105 

,, ceiling iiSi 

,, cont'ectionery . . 234 
,, curved gables 122, 109 
,, parapet .. .. 123 

Arcade, the open 63 

Architect, his position in i6th 

century 255 — 2O6 

Arnold, a joiner 257 

Arthur, Prince, chantry in Wor- 
cester Cathedral .. .. II, I 

Arundel, Earl of 34 

AsHKouRNE Church, tombs, 13, 16, 2,9 

AsKEWE, Lady Anne 143 

AsTBURY Church, font cover . . 221 


AsTON Hal! 70 72, gS, 99 

,, ceilings 179, Lxx., Lxxi. 

,, longgallery 195, 19O, Lxxvi. 

,, nortli wing 54 

,. plan 53 

,, south front 81 

Aubrey, John 35 

Audley End 73. 144 

,, ceilings . . . . 179. 1^2 

,, frieze 182, 168 

,, long gallery . . • • i95 

,, parapet . . . . 123, 112 

,, staircase .. 193, lxxiv. 

Axbridge Church, ceiling .. .. 223 

Aylesford Hall, doorway . . 93, 75 

Azay-le-Kideau, Chateau de . . 230 

Bacon, Lord 76,88 

Sir Nicholas .. 88,89,90 
Bakewell Church, tomb in . . 7 
Balliol College, Oxford, glazing 199 

Baluster, pierced t7^ 

Banbury " Reindeer " Inn . . i(>2, 

177. 181 

ceiling lxix. 

side of room xlix. 

BANyiETiNfi Hall at Whitehall .. 9 

house 13'' 

,, at (iorhambury 90 
,, at C h i p pin g 

Campden . . 132 
Bakdwkll Manor House, chimney i.;8, 


liAKLiiOKouciM Hall .. f>7 '''8,235 

,, ,, cliimney-piece i68, 


,. entrance front 50 
,, plan 49 

Harrington C"ourt .. no, xxxii. 

liAKsHAM, ICast. Sci- llast Harsiiam. 

liASiNr. Church, I'aulet tombs. . 2(), vii. 

IJasingstoke, Chape! of Holy (ihost 17 
glazing I')') 

Bay windows ''■ 



Bean Lodge, Petworth, chimney 130, 

Beckington Abbey, ceiling 177, 178, 

162, 163 

,, ,, door . . 155, 140 

Benedetto da Kovezzano . . . . 254 

Benthall Hall 156 

,, ceiling . . . . 180, 165 
,, chimney-piece 171, 156 
., panelling 156, 157, 158, 


,, staircase .. 193, 179 

Bingham Melcombe 17 

Black and white houses . . . . 106 

Blickling 73 

ceiling 181 

chimney 130 

curved gables .. ..122 

part of entrance front xxxvii. 

staircase 192 

Blunt, Matthew, a joiner . . . . 257 
Bluom, Hans, his book on the Five 

Orders 264 

Blvthborough Church, pulpit 220, 207 

Boccaccio 2 

Boleyn, Anne 28 

Bolsover Castle 103, 87 

,, chimney-pieces 171, 

157, LXIV. 

,. plan . . . . 104, 88 
Books on Architecture published 

during the i6th century . . 264 

Booroe, Dr. Andrew . . . . 56, 62 

his Dyetaryo/Helth quoted 57 

Boughton House, chimney-piece i68, 


BoLRNE Pond, Colchester, mill 212, 204 
Bocrton-on-the-Water, cottage 112, 

Bkadbourne, tomb of .. .. 16,9 

Bradfield 163, 238 

Bramall Hall 107 

Bramshill 105 

parapet 123, iii 

rain-water head ,. 131, 129 
Brandon, Charles. Duke of Suffolk 53 
Bredon Church, Reed tomb. . 218, 204 
Brigstock, village cross 211, lxxx. 
Bristol, door in a house at 164, liii. 
,, in St. Peter's hos- 
pital . . . . 166, LV. 
old houses at 201 

Bristol, Red Lodge .. .. 157, 163 

Broadway, doorway at . . . . 92, 74 

Tudor House 118, xxxv. 

Bkomley-by-Bow, chimney-piece 172, 


Broughton Castle, inner porch 163, 

238, LI. 

Brunelleschi 6 

Buckhurst House 73 

the long gallery 195 

BuRFORD Priory, window tracery 223 

Burghley House . . g, 98, 128, 260 

general view xxviii. 

,, long gallery .. 195 

staircase 187, lxxii. 

Burghley, Lord . . 75, 76, 144, 146 

letters to (and from) 260, 

261, 262 

Burlington, Lord 261 

Burton Agnes 70, 91 

,, bay windows.. 112,95 

,, ceiling 183 

,, plan 52 

Burton Latimer, school . . 211, 197 
Bury St. Edmund's, glazing at 

Church of St. James . . . . 199 
Busts on houses 120 

Cabot 2 


King's College, fan-vaulting 

in chapel 3 
glazing . . 199 
screen in 
chapel 28, III, 

255. VIII. 

Peterhouse, woodwork in 

chapel 223,212 

Queen's College, panelling 257 
St. John's College, contracts 256 
Trinity College, contract for 

woodwork 25b 

the hall 159, xlv. 

Canterbury, corbels . . 206, 188, 189 

house in High Street 202, 


Carbrook Hall, Sheffield . . . . 155 

ceiling 181 

frieze . . . . 184, 170 
panelling 155, xlii. 

Casement fasteners 166 

Cassell 145 



Castle Ashby, chimney-piece 172, lxvi. 

parapet 124 

Castlemaine, Countess of . . . . 34 
Castle Rising, door at . . . . 152, 139 

Cave, Robert, a joiner 257 

Thomas, tomb of . . 15, 5, 6 
Cecil, SirWilHam. S^^LordBurghley. 

Ceilings in houses 173 — 184 

,, in churches 223 

Cellini, Benvenuto 7 

Chalfield, Great 42 

hall 45 

.. plan.. .. 43,33 

Chambord, Chateau de 230 

Change of detail from Italian to 

Dutch 39 

Channel Row, house for Lady 

Derby 205 

Chapel Royal, St. James's, ceiling 176 

Chapman, a mason 36 

Charles 1 5 

Charles II 34 

Charles VIII. (of France) tomb at 

St. Denis 12 

Charlton, Wiltshire . . . . 98, 80 

ceiling 178 

frieze 1S2, 168 

Charterhouse, The, staircase at 

192, 181 
Charwelton Church, tomb in 16, 8 

Chastleton, ceiling 183 

plan 90, 91, 

92, 72 

Chelvey Court, pew .. .. 157,143 

porch . . 83, 84, 64 

Cheney Court 101,84 

,, ,, doorway.. .. 87,68 

Chenonceau, Chateau de . . . . 230 
Chest at St. Mary Overie, South- 

wark 39. X- 

Chester, the Rows at 207 

Chesterfield ("hurch, Foljambe 

tombs 218, 203 
pulpit 221, 208 

Chkvington 231) 

Chichestkk tomb. North I'ilton 218, 

202, L.XXXI. 

ClIIMNEY-I'IKCKS .. .. > ^'7 1 7 J 

Chimneys 125 130 

typical chimney of the 

Midlands 119 

Cmi'CHAsE Castle, porch . . 85, xxi\'. 

Chipping Campden almshouses 208, 193 


house . . 137, 132 

,, chimney.. 128,120 

market - house 211, 


Christchurch, Hampshire, choir 

stalls 23, 17, 18 
Draper's chantry 22, 16 
Salisbury chantry 17, 

20 — 22, 14, 15, v., VI. 

Churches, work in 2:5 

Claverton, terrace . . 133, xxxviii. 

Clegg Hall 106, 90 

Clifford, Lady Anne 144 

Clifton Maubank 64 

Clifton, Sir Jarvis (or Gervase), 

John Thorpe's plan of house, 231. 


Clough, Richard . . . . 260, 261, 262 

Cobb, a plasterer 257 

Cobham Hall, Kent 130,260 

CoBHAM, Lord 260 

CoKAYNE, tomb of 11,2 

Cold Ashton 102 

doorway . . 86, 87, 67 
general view .. .. 85 
gateway .. 79, 81, 58 

plan 102, 86 

Columbus 2 

Compton Winyates 33, 47—49, 94, 128 
details from 

church 223, 211 
entrance porch xii. 
general view . . xi 

plan 37 

CoNDovKK Hall .. .. 104,105,89 
CoNFECTioNicKY, remarkable . . 234 

CoNisnEAD I'riory i'>5 

Constantinople, fall of .. .. 2 
Contract for glazing at St. John's 

("cjllege, C^'imbridge 257 
,, piinelling at Hen- 
grave Hall . . . . 148 
,, second court at St. 
J ohn's (■ o 1 1 ege, 
Cambridge . . . . 256 
,. tomb for 'iliomas 

I-'ermor . . . . 251) 
,, woodwork at 'Irinity 
College, Cambridge 257 
Copernicus 9' 



Copt Hall, the long gallery . . . . 195 
Corbels to overhanging storeys . . 206 
CoRSHAM Court . . . . 99, 100, 82 

almshouses 208 

reading-desk 192 
Coventry, Ford's Hospital . . . . 207 

CowHRAY House 105 

vaulting of porch 19, 
13. IV. 
windows 109, no, 93 
Craftsmen provide their own 

designs 256 

Cranborne, porch 91, xxvi. 

Croscombe Church, woodwork . . 219 
Crosses, market and village. . .. 211 
Cross, St., Winchester, screen 17, 24, vii. 

Dais, the 43 

Dale, Richard 58 

Dante 2 

Danvers, Sir John ; plans and 
elevation of his house by John 

Thorpe 246, 227, 228 

Dartmouth, butter-market . . . . 201 

Decoration of rooms 145 

Deene Hall 148 

ceiling.. 177, 134, lxviii. 
Defensive precautions abandoned 73 
Derby, Lady, house for . . . . 205 
Designs, the providers of . . . . 256 

DiNiNCKHOFF, Bernard 198 

Dissolution of the Monasteries . . 5 


,, entrance front 

with gatehouse xxi. 
,, lay-out 77, 78, 56 
,, parapet .. .. 123 

.. plan 51 

,, porch 82, 83, 63 

Door furniture 165, 166, 150 — 155 

Doors 164 

Doorways (entrance) and porches 

Dramatic entertainments .. .. 138 
Draper's chantry, Christchurch 22. 16 
Drawswerd, Sheriff of York . . 11 
Drayto.n House, chimney .. 128, 121 
Droitwich, chimney at. . .. 126,114 
Drury, Elizabeth, tomb of . . 16, 10 

Du Cerceau 95 

copied by John Thorpe 227 
DuRDANs, The 35 

Dutch character of detail . . . . 39 

Dutch, imitation of the 8 

influence on English archi- 
tecture 9, 120 

influence on John Thorpe 230 

refugees 253 

Dyrik, a joiner 258 

East Ardsley Old Hall 106 

Eastawe, John 56 

East Barsham 17.47 

plan 36 

East Quantockshead 169 

staircase 192, 174 

Edington Church, pulpit 221, lxxxiii. 

Elevations by John Thorpe lxxxvii., 

214, 215, 219, 222, 223, 224, 228, 

229, 230 

Elizabethan mansion, new style 

to be found in 5 

Elizabeth, Queen 138, 140 

Eltham Palace, roof . . . . 28, 25 

Elvetham 234 

Enfield, chimney-piece at .. ..172 
English workmen, character of 

their work . . 95 
Italianizing of 16 
Evelyn, John, his notes on None- 
such Palace 34 

EwEN, Nicholas 11 

Exeter, Guildhall 210 

house formerly in North 

Street 201, 184 

External appearance of an Eliza- 
bethan house 95 

ExTON Church, tomb 4 

Hall 99, 123, XXIX. 

parapet no 

Eyam Hall, garden 135, 133 

terrace steps .. xxxix. 

Faerie Queen, the 5 

Famueler, Giles, wood-carver . . 257 
Fan-vaulting .. 3, 10, 19, pi. i., iv. 

Fermor, Thomas 258 

contract for his 
tomb . . . . 259 


Finstock Manor House. . 
Fisher, Bishop, his tomb 
Florence Cathedral 

117, lOI 

118, 102 
.. 258 


Foljambe tombs, Chesterfield 218, 203 



Font covers 221 

Ford House, Newton Abbot, 

chimney-piece .. .. 170, lxii- 

Fountains Hall 92 

Fox, Bishop of Winchester . . 24, 25 

France, Renaissance in 3 

Francis I. of France 7, 8 

French influence on English Archi- 
tecture . . 8, 152 

,, ,, on John Thorpe 230 

Gables 116 

of timber houses .. .. iig 

curved 120 

Gallery, at Gorhambury . . . . 90 

minstrels' 43 

the long 63, 195 — 197, Lxxv., 


Garden at Holdenby 76 

Gardens 133 

Gardiner's chantry, Winchester 

Cathedral 25 

Gascoigne, George. . . . 141, 142, 214 
Gatehouses and lodges . . 78 — 83 
Gayhurst, pillars in garden. . 133, 130 
porch of house .. 85,66 
Gayton Manor House, door. . 166, lv. 

Gedde, Walter, glazier 199 

patterns from his 

' Booke of Sundry Draughtes " 


General aspect of an Elizabethan 

house 94 

Germany, Renaissance in . . . . 3 

Gests 143 

Giles Famteler, wood-carver . . 257 
GiLLiNG Castle, glass at. . .. 198, 183 

Giovanni da Majano 254 

Glazing 197 — 199 

Glinton Manor House . . 100, xxix. 

Gorhamhury 88 - 91 

porch 70 

Gothic and Classicdetail mixed 17 — 33 
Architecture contrasted 

with Classic 2, 4 

Great chamber, the 194 

Great Snoring 17.47 

Greek literature 2 

Gresha.m, Sir Thomas . . . . 2f>o, 261 
Guildford, Abbott's Hospital. See 
Abbott's Hospital. 

Haddon Hall 47. 94. 105 

.. ceilings 177, 181, 161, 166 
,, door furniture 167, 151, 


,, frieze 184 

,, long gallery 195, lxxv. 
,, panelling 153, 154, 135 


, rain-water heads 131, 

124, 125, 126 

,, screen . . . . 149, 135 

,, terrace .. 133, xxxviii. 

Half-timber houses 56 

Hall, the chief apartment . . . . 41 

its treatment 159 

its decay 72 

Hambleton Old Hall 71 

parapet .. 123 
porch. . 89, 91 
staircase 192, 173 

Hampton Court 29 

,. ceilings 33, 149, 174— 
176, 158, 159, 160, 


chapel roof. . • • 33 
door to great hall 28 
early work at . . 29 

.. glazing 197 

long gallery . . 197 

roof of great hall 28, 

30, 161, 26, 27 

roundels .. .. 254 

size of courts 35, 76 

tapestry . . . . 147 

Hamstall liidware, lodge . . . . 79 

Hardwick Hall, chimney-piece 169, lxi, 

,, plaster frieze 1C4, 184, 


Harrington, John, Lord . . . . 100 
Harrington, John, tomb of . . . . 15. 4 
Harrison, Dyrik, a joiner .. 257, 25S 
Harrison, Stephen, joiner and 

architect 140 

Haselkiggk 235 

Haserid(;k, Sir Wm.. plan and 
elevation for his house by 
John Thorpe 235, lxxxvi., lxxxvii. 
Hatfield House chimney-piece . . 169, 


doorway . . Hf>, xxv. 
staircase . . . . 192 
window-head . . 99A 



Hatton, Sir Christopher 63, 76, 77, 81, 

96. 143, 144 

Hawking-tower at Althorpe 212, igg, 

Hawstkad Church, tomb in. . 16, 10 

Heneage, Sir Thomas 144 

Hengrave Hall .. 33, 54 — 56, 128, 258 
,, contract for panel- 
ling 148 

corbelling of bay 44 
entrance gateway xiv. 

glazing 198 

plan 42 

west front . . . . 43 

Henrick, or Henryck 260 

Henry VH.'s Chapel, Westminster 3, 10, 

pi. I. 

stalls ..26,21,22 

tomb 7, 10—15, 253, 

pi- II., 3 

will 256 

Henry VHI., his influence on 

architecture . . 7 
,, ,, he annexes Wol- 

sey's tomb . . 254 

Hentzner, Paul 33 

Hereford, house in High Town 203, 186 

Hertford, Earl of 234 

Hesse, Landgrave of 145 

HiGHLow Hall, gateway. . 134, x.xxix. 

Hoghton Tower 105 

,, bay window of hall iii, 


Holbein 7 

his work in England . . 255 


court 78 

gateways 80, 81, 61 
., lay-out . . 75, 55 
,, long gallery .. 195 


Holy Ghost Chapel, Basingstoke 17 

glazing .. 199 

HosPiTALLof Incurable Fooles.the 264 

Houses enlarged to receive royalty 144 

in streets 200 

proclamation as 
to materials. . 203 
HuDDiNGTON Court House, chimney 127, 


Ightham Church, glazing from 197, 182 

Imber, Lawrence 11 

Ingelby Manor 106, 91 

Inner porch to rooms . . . . 163, li. 
Interior features of houses . . . . 138 
Invasion of the foreign style . . lo 

Ipswich, old houses at 201 

Islip, Abbot of Westminster . . 8 

Italian detail in tombs. . . . 10 — 26 

workmen .. .. 18 — 24,253 

Italy, its influence on architecture i — 9 

James I., King 140 

Janson, Cornelius 261 

Jenins, Robert 11 

John of Padua 8 

Johnson the druggist, Mr., plan of 

his house by John Thorpe . . 245, 

Jones, Inigo . . 6, 9, 42, 63, 64, 72, 263 
JoYNER, Michael 28 

Kelmarsh Church, window tracery 

222, 210 
Kenilworth Castle, princely plea- 
sures 141 

Kentwell Hall 99. 83 

Kenyon Peel, gateway . . . . 82, 62 
King's College, Cambridge. See 

King's Lynn, Chapel of the Red 

Mount 19, IV. 

Kip, William 140 

Kirby Hall.. 60 — 64, 73, 81, 95, 96, 105 
bay windows 112, xxxiii. 
chimney . . . . 128, 118 
courtyard, south side 

of XVII., 76 

finials 118 

gables 121 

hall, roof of . . . . 161, 147 

parapet 123 

plan 46 

plan by John Thorpe xviii. 
porch, detail of . . . . xix. 
west front . . . . 77, 107 

Kitchen, the 41 

Kneelers 117,101 

Knockers 167, 155 

Knole House 73, 130, 131 

■ . hall 159, 145 

lead rain-water head 128 
Kytson, Sir Thomas . . 148, 149, 239 



Lacock Abbey . . . . 17, 36 — 38, no 
chimney.. 128, xxxvi. 
chimney-piece 168, LVii. 

„ ,, stables 32 

,, stone tables . . 30, 31 
tile paving . . . . ix- 
tower at S.E. corner 29 

Lambert, a joiner 257 

Landgrave of Hesse 145 

Langton Chapel, Winchester Ca- 
thedral 27 

Lavenham Church, the Spring pew 27, 

23. 24 
Layer Marney, tombs at . . 17, 11, iii. 
Layer Marney Tower . . 17, 33, 52 — 54, 

no, 128 

,, ,, details xiii. 

entrance tower . . 41 

Lay-out of houses 74 

Lebons, John 11 

Lechlaue, " Swan " Inn . . 207, 191 

Ledbury Market-house 107 

Lee, Mr., free mason 258 

Leeds, St. John's Church . . . . 222 
screen.. 219 

Leicester, Earl of 142 

Leicester, Old Town Hall . . 162, 


Leominster, The Grange . . . . 107 

Levens Hall, door 164, liv. 

Lilford Hall, bay window 112, xxxiv. 
curved gables 123, XXXIV. 

Lilly the CJrammarian gi 

Lincoln, Earl of 145 

Lingfieli), gateway .. .. 134, 131 
Little Charlton, ceiling .. 184, 171 

LocKi'LATEs 152 

Lodge, the 74 

JUDGES and gateways . . 78-83 

Loggia, the Italian 4'. ^3 

LoNGLEAT 97.78 

LoRME, Phililiert de 261 

LOSELEY 35. 143 

Louvre, the 145 

LuMLEY, Lord 34 

Lyddington, doorway at . . 92, 73 
Lyveden Old Huilding, staircase 192, 

172. 175 
New Hiiilding . . . . 247 

Madrit, Chateau de . . 228, 230 
Majano, Giovanni da 254 

Manners, Sir John 131,181 

Margaret, mother of Henry VII., 

her tomb 11,253 

Market-houses 207,210 

Marlivale, Mr., letter of . . . . 239 

Marney, Sir Henry 53 

Marney, Henry, Lord, his tomb 11, 

pi. III. 

Mary, Queen 34 

Mary, St., Overie, chest at . . 39, x. 
Mayfield, house at . . . . 108, 92 

Michael Joyner 28 

Middle Temple Hall .. .. 159,161 
,, glazing .. 198 

MiLDMAY, Sir Anthony 234 

Mill at Bourne Pond . . . . 212, 198 

Minstrels' Gallery 43 

Modena, Nicholas of 255 

Monasteries, dissolution of . . . . 5 

Montacute House . . 64—67, 73, 105, 

123, 128, 133, 184 

part of entrance 

front . . . . XX, 

plan 47 

plasterfrieze 168,169 
west front . . 48 

Montagu, Sir Edward 168 

More, Sir Thomas 247 

More, Sir William, of Loseley . . 143 
MoRETON Old Hall.. .. 56 — 59, 107 
,, entrance porch xv. 
,, gable . . . . XVI. 
,, glazing 197, Lxxvii. 
,, plan .. .. 45 

Mount Cirace Priory 
MoYNS Park 

Nailsea Court, dcjor 

Neker, Thomas 
Nelson, Lord . . 
Nicholas of Modena 
Nine Worthies, the 
Nonesuch Palace . . 

106, XXX. 

.. 130 

155. 141 
«5. 65 
.. 148 

■ ^54 
■• ^55 

()6, 88, 142 

53—3Ci. 76 
banfjueting house 136 

garden 134 

NoRKis, Sir Henry .. .. 260, 261 
Nokthami'tonshikic cottage, a . . 100 
North Pilton, Chichester tomb .. 218, 

202, LXXXI. 

Nokthumherlani), Dnke of . . .. 265 




Nottingham, houses on the Long 

Row 207 

NuNziATA, Toto del . . 34 note, 254 

Oakwell Hall 106 

OcKWELLs Manor House, staircase 192, 

177, 178 

Offley, Hugh 39 

Orations, Latin 141 

Orton Waterville, corbel . . 206, 190 

OuNDLE, gateway of almshouses 81, 60 

OxBURGH Hall, described . . . . 45 

entrance tower . . 35 

„ plan . . . . 44, 34 

Oxford, Baliol College, glazing . . 199 

house in the High Street 202, 


Queen's College, glazing 199 
,, Wadham College, screen 

in hall 159, 161, xliv. 
Wadham College, window 

tracery 222 

Paganino 12 

Pageants 139 

Pageny, Master (Paganino) . . . . 12 

Palladio ; . . . 95 

Panelling of the time of Henry 

vni 136, 138 

Papworth, Mr. Wyatt 265 

Parapets 123, no, in, 112 

Parlour, the 41 

Paulet tombs in Basing Church 26, vii. 

Pavia, Certosa of 6 

Pegme, or triumphal arch . . . . 140 

Pendants of ceilings 167 

Pepys, notes on Nonesuch Palace 35 

Peter, a joiner 257 

Peterhouse, Cambridge, wood- 
work in chapel 223, 212 

Petrarch 2 

Phelips, Sir Edward 65 

Pilton Church, font cover .. 221, 209 

Pitchford Hall 107 

PiTTi Palace 6 

Plan : development of house plan 41 — 72 
Elizabethan house plan .. 59 

E type of plan 67 

H type of plan 64 

old type still preserved at 
Oxford and Cambridge . . 42 
Plan of Althorpe Hawking-tower 200 

Plan of Anssi-le-Franc . ; . . 213 

,, Aston Hall 53 

,, Barlborough Hall .. .. 49 

,, Bolsover Castle .. .. 88 

,, Burton Agnes 52 

,, Chalfield, Great .. .. 33 

,, Chastleton 72 

,, Clifton, Sir Jarvis, his 

house 86 

,, Cold Ashton 86 

,, Compton Winyates . . 37 
,, Danvers, Sir John, his 

house 227, 228 

,, Doddington Hall .. .. 51 

,, East Barsham 36 

,, Eyam Hall, garden .. 133 

,, Hengrave Hall .. .. 42 

,, Holdenby, lay-out .. .. 55 
,, Johnson the druggist, his 

house 225 

,, Kirby Hall 46 

,, by John Thorpe 


,, Montacute House . . . . 47 

,, Moreton Old Hall . . .. 45 

,, Oxburgh Hall 34 

,, Powell, Mr. W'"., his house 224 

,, Sutton Place 38 

,, Wollaton Hall 79 

Plans from John Thorpe's book 226 — 

252, LXXXIV., LXXXV., LXXXVI., 2I3, 
216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 223, 224, 

225, 226, 227, 228, 231 

Platts, or plans 256 

Porches 83 — 93 

Porter, the 73-79 

Powell, Mr. W"'.,plan and eleva- 
tion for his house, by John 

Thorpe 244, 224 

Printing, invention of 3,6 

Progresses of the Sovereign . . 138 
Pulpit in Winchester Cathedral. . 27 
Pulpits 220 

Quantockshead, East 169 

staircase.. 192, 174 
Queen's College, Oxford, glazing 199 

Rainham Hall 72 

Rain-water heads 130 

Red Lodge, Bristol, panelling . . 157 
inner porch . . . . 163 



Red Mount, Chapel of, King's Lynn 19 
Reed tomb, Bredon Church 218, 204 

Reformation, the 3 

" Reindeer " Inn, Banbury. . . . 162 
ceihng 177, 181, lxix. 
panelled room 162, xlix. 

Renaissance in letters 2 

style 2, 3 

Richmond, Countess of, tomb 11, 253 

Richmond Court 126 

Rodes, Francis 168 

Roiley, Richard and Gabriel, tomb 

makers 258, 259 

RoTHWELL, cottage at .. .. 119,103 

market-house . . 185, 210 

RovEZZANO, Benedetto da . . . . 254 

Royal Exchange, Gresham's 261, 262 

Rules of architecture 6 

RusHTON Hall 105 

,, chimney of Triangu- 
lar Lodge . . . . 122 
,, curved gables 122, 108, 


,, finials 118 

, , parapet 123 

,, rain-water head . . 131 

Rydge, Richard 28, 29 

Rye, St. John's Hospital . . . . 208 

Saint Germain, plan copied by 

John Thorpe 228 

Salisbury Chantry, the, at Christ- 
church. See Christchurch. 
Sandwich, corl^els on " King's 

Arms" . . . . 206, 187 
Queen lilizalxjth's visit 

to 141 

Savile, John, describes visit of 

James I. to Theobalds . . . . 77 

Schools 211 

Scole, sign of the " White Hart" 213 

Screen at Tilney All Saints . . 219, 


at St. Cross . . . . 25, vn. 
at Winchester Cathedral 24, :o 

of churches 219 

i){ hall in houses and ccjI- 

leges 159 

Screens, " the screens " in a house 42, 

Seymour, Jane, arms 33 


Seymour, Jane, tomb 254 

Sharington, William 36 — 38, 128, 168 

Grace (his wife) . . 38 

Sherborne, rain-water head 131, 127 

Shrewsbury, market-house . . 210, 194 

school 211 

Shute, John, his Chief Grotuides of 

Architecture 263 

Silkstede, Prior, his pulpit . . 27 
Sizergh Hall, ceiling . . 179, 181, 164 

door 164 

frieze . . . . 184, l. 
inner porch . . 163, 283 
panelling 163, 164, l., 148 
Slaugham Place, the long gallery 195 
Smaller rooms, the treatment of 162 

Smith, Sir Thomas 260 

Smith.son, Robert 265 

Snoring, Great 17. 47 

South Wraxall, ceiling . . .. 177, 178 
chimney-piece 169, lx. 
great chamber 162, 


Spain, Renaissance in 3 

Sparke, John 56 

Speke Hall 107, XXXI. 

Spencer, Robert, Lord 212 

Sir William, u^mb at 
Yarnton . . . . 218, 205 
Spring Pew, Lavenham Church 27, 23, 

Stafford, Sir Humphrey . . . . 63 

Staircase, the grand 47 

at Benthall Hall.. 193, 179 

at Kirby 63 

Staircases 185 — 194 

examples from John 
Thorpe's drawings. . 1S9, 

190, LXXIIl. 

in I'rance 185 

Stanford Church, panelling 151, 137 
tomb in . . 15, 5, 6 
Stanninge, or Hawking-tower .. 212 
Stanwav, gatehouse .. .. 79, xxii. 
curved gables .. .. 123 
St. Cross, Winchester, screen 25, vii. 
.. lames. Chapel Royal, ceiling 176 
,, Margaret's Westminster, glaz- 
ing 199 

.. Mary Overie, Southwark, chest 39, x. 
.. Neot's Church, C'ornwall, glaz- 
ing 19'J 




Steventon, cottage at 112, 119, 97, 105 
Stokesay Castle, gatehouse . . 79, 57 
Stonegrave Church, screen . . 220 
Stowe -Nine- Churches, reredos 

and screen 157,142,144 

STRATFORn-ON-AvoN, housc at . . 202, 


Sutton Court, near Guildford . . 33 
Sutton Place (or Court) near 

Guildford 17, 49 — 52 

,, ,, details 39 

.. part elevation of 

courtyard . . . . 40 

,, plan 38 

SwiNSTY Old Hall 106 

Symmetry in plan . . . . 41, 49, 60 

Tailor, Thomas 70 

Tapestry 146, 134 

Temple Newsam 125 

Terra-cotta detail 18 

Texts on walls of churches . . . . 224 
Theobalds . . . . 73, 77, 144, 146 
Thorpe, John . . . . 8, 78, 195, 256, 

his book of drawings 226 
., his plan of Kirby 

Hall . . . . 62, XVIII. 
,. ,, his plans for London 

houses . . . . 203 
,, his study of foreign 

books 227 

Tilney All Saints, screen 219, lxxxu. 
Toller Fratrum, chimney . . 127, 117 

Tomb, contract for 259 

Tombs, development of style in 10 — 26, 

Andrew, Sir Thomas 16, 8 

Bradbourne . . 16, 9 

Cave, Thomas .. .. 15,5,6 
Chichester . . 218, 202, lxxxi. 

Cokayne 11,2 

Drury, Klizabeth 16, 10 

Foljambe 218, 203 

Harrington, John . . 15. 4 

Henry VH. 7, 10 — 15, 253, 3, 11. 
Marney, Henry, Lord 11, iii. 

Paulet 26, vii. 

Reed 218, 204 

Spencer, Sir Wm. . . 218, 205 
Vernon. Sir George .. t6, 8 

Torrigiano 7. 13 

employed on Henry 
VIL's tomb . . 12, 254 
ToRRisANV, Peter (same as Torri- 
giano) 12 

Toto del Nunziata . . . . 34 note, 254 

TowN-HALLs 209 

Treeton, cottage at .. .. 119,104 

Tresham, Sir Thomas 210 

Triangular Lodge, Rushton, 

chimney 128, 122 

Trinity College, Cambridge, the 

hall 159, 161, xlv. 

Upper Slaughter, porch 
Uprights, or elevations. 

. 85, xxiv. 
. 226, 256 

Venice, palaces at 7 

Vernon, Dorothy 131, 181 

her legend 196 

Vernon, Sir George . . 131, 181, 196 

tomb of 16, 8 

Verrio's ceilings 181 

Verses, Latin 141 

Virtue, Robert 11 


Vries, or Vriese 95 

his books on architecture . . 264 
copied by John Thorpe 228, 215 

Vyne, the, Hampshire 17 

.. glazing 199 

panelling .. .. 23, 152, 19 

Wadham College, Oxford. See 

Walker, Humphrey 11 

Wardour Castle, archway to stairs 87, 

XX v. 
Warwick, house at, staircase 192, 180 
Westminster, Henry Vn.'schapel 3, 

10, pi. I. 

tomb 7, 



stalls 26. 

21, 22 

Weston, Sir Richard . . . . 52, 53 

Westwood, curved gables . . . . 123 

gatehouse .. . . 79, xxiii. 

Whiston, chimney-piece 171, lxiii. 

Whitehall, gateways at . . . . 255 

Wilton House, work at . . . . 255 



Winchester Cathedral 17 

chantry 25 
., ., Langton's 

chapel 27 
Prior Silk- 
pulpit 27 
screen in 
choir 23, 25, 
St. Cross, screen 25, vii. 

Windows 100 — 115 

sections of jambs, etc. .. 98 

Window tracery 222, 210 

WiNWiCK, gateway 79, 59 

WoLLATON Hall 73 

chimneys . . . . 128 
corner tower . . 106 
curved gables 120, 122 
general view xxvii. 
long gallery . . 195 

WoLL\TON Hall, parapet . . . . 123 

,, plan .. .. 97,79 

roofofhall.. 161,146 

window-sill 114, 99 

WoLSEY, Cardinal . . . . 7, 147, 154 

his tomb . . . . 254 

his work at 

Hampton Court 29 

Wood panelling, development of. . 14S 

WooLLAS Hall, porch . . . . 87, 69 

screen . 160, xlvi. 

Worth Church, Sussex, pulpit 220, 206 

Wren, Sir Christopher. . . . 6, 35 

Wrest 144 

Wright, Robert, glazier . . . . 19S 

Wymondham Church,sediliai7, i2,32a. 

market-house 210 — 195 

Yarnton, Spencer tomb . . 218, 205 

York, old houses at 201 

Young, Dr., his tomb 254 



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